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Background and aims

The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a group of young Italians who self-injure. In examining the characteristics, specific attention was given to the feelings and personal experiences associated with episodes of NSSI.

Methods

The research involved 362 young people (332 females and 30 males) who completed an online survey hosted on a website specifically geared to supporting young people who self-injure. This methodology enabled involving a diverse population of young people who self-injure, thus going beyond specific groups or clinical samples.

Results

Results show that the majority of respondents start injuring themselves between the ages of 12 and 16 years (72.38%, n = 262). Cutting was the most common self-injuring method (81.77%, n = 297). The 79.83% (n = 289) of respondents had not sought professional help for their wounds, preferring to care for their wounds on their own. More than half of the respondents (56.91%, n = 206) claimed to have experienced anxiety-spectrum disorders and almost half of the respondents (41.71%, n = 151) claimed to have experienced some type of eating disorder.

Discussion and Conclusions

Many similarities have been found between this study and the literature, thus strengthening the hypothesis that NSSI is becoming a universal issue with similar characteristics across countries.

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Researchand Public Health , 8 ( 10 ), 4025 – 4038 . Wang , G. J. , Volkow , N. D. , Thanos , P. K. & Fowler , J. S. ( 2004 ). Similarity between obesity and drug addiction as

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. Keddie & B. Baron (Eds.), Women in Middle Eastern history: Shifting boundaries in sex and gender . New Haven : Yale University Press . Kleck , R. E. , & Rubenstein , C. ( 1975 ). Physical attractiveness, perceived attitude similarity, and

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picture processing interferes with working memory performance . Journal of Sex Research , 50 , 642 – 652 . Leeman , R. F. & Potenza , M. N. ( 2012 ). Similarities and differences

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the reasons for student status termination bear many similarities in the Hungarian language higher education institutions of the three countries. Table  1 shows these similarities. Table 1. Reasons for

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Mateusz Gola, Karol Lewczuk, Marc N. Potenza, Drew A. Kingston, Joshua B. Grubbs, Rudolf Stark, and Rory C. Reid

sexual impulses, urges, or behaviors is not sufficient to meet this requirement.” Additionally, paraphilic disorders are exclusionary. The ICD-11 definition shares similarities with the proposed criteria for hypersexual disorder (HD) that was considered

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Diseases for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics (11th ed., ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2018 ) to those three categories reveals main similarity which is performing an act that is being experienced as irresistible. While those three classes share

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GD and hazardous gaming ICD-11 included GD as an addictive disorder in 2019 ( WHO, 2019 ). The GD criteria apply to both online and offline gaming because of the similarities in addictions to online and offline games ( Kuss et al., 2017a ). The DSM-5

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Barbara Penolazzi, Fabio Del Missier, Davide Francesco Stramaccia, Anna Laura Monego, Luigi Castelli, Amalia Manzan, Marco Bertoli, and Giovanni Galfano

showing impairments of different inhibitory components in GD ( Kertzman, Vainder, Aizer, Kotler, & Dannon, 2017 ), and given the similarity of GD and SRD with respect to various inhibitory deficits indexed by response and choice impulsivity ( Leeman

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. , & Merriman , L. A. ( 2011 ). Sex differences and sex similarities in disgust sensitivity . Personality & Individual Differences , 51 ( 3 ), 343 – 348 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.003 Tybur , J. M. , Lieberman , D. , & Griskevicius , V

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