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., Sakamoto, K., Naganawa, T., Inubushi, K., Hatano, R. and Kosaki, T. 2003. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide emissions and their soil-related determining factors in an agricultural field. J. Environ. Qual. 32: 1965

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) . Vie et Milieu - Life and Environment 59 : 21 – 30 . Afli , A. , R. Chakroun , R. Ayari and P. Aissa . 2009 c. Seasonal and spatial variability of the community and trophic

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Community Ecology
Authors: C. Calderón del Cid, R. S. Rezende, A. R. Calor, J. S. Dahora, L. N. de Aragão, M. L. Guedes, A. N. Caiafa, and A. O. Medeiros

tropical biomes . Sci. Rep. 7 : 1 – 14 . Tonin , A.M. , Ubiratan Hepp , L. and Gonçalves , J.F. 2018 . Spatial variability of plant litter decomposition in stream

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/ anthropogenic variations . Cahiers de Biologie Marine 50 : 105 – 117 . Afli , A. , R. Chakroun , R. Ayari and P. Aissa . 2009 b. Seasonal and spatial variability of the community and

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Fóti, Sz., J. Balogh, Z. Nagy, Zs. Ürmös, S. Bartha and Z. Tuba. 2008. Temporal and spatial variability and pattern of soil respiration in loess grassland. Community Ecol. 9(Suppl): 57–64. Tuba Z

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Fennica 2002 36 353 366 Li, M.H., G. Hoch and C. Körner. 2001. Spatial variability of mobile

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors: Z. Varga-Haszonits, E. Enzsölné Gerencsér, Z. Lantos, and Z. Varga

The temporal and spatial variability of soil moisture, evapotranspiration and water use were investigated for winter barley. Evaluations were carried out on a database containing meteorological and yield data from 15 stations. The spatial distribution of soil moisture, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency (WUE) was evaluated from 1951 to 2000 and the moisture conditions during the growth period of winter barley were investigated. The water supply was found to be favourable, since the average values of soil moisture remained above the lower limit of favourable water content throughout the growth period, except for September–December and May–June. The actual evapotranspiration tended to be close to the potential evapotranspiration, so the water supplies were favourable throughout the vegetation period. The calculated values of WUE showed an increasing trend from 1960 to 1990, but the lower level of agricultural inputs caused a decline after 1990. The average values of WUE varied between 0.87 and 1.09 g/kg in different counties, with higher values in the northern part of the Great Hungarian Plain. The potential yield of winter barley can be calculated from the maximum value of WUE. Except in the cooler northern and western parts of the country, the potential yield of winter barley, based on the water supply, could exceed 10 t/ha.

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agricultural production is a basic, traditional constituent of the Hungarian economy. An importance question nowadays is how the land can be cultivated and agricultural goods produced under the conditions of sustainable development. From the plant nutrition point of view the establishment of an environment-friendly fertilizer recommendation system is essential if sustainable development is to be achieved. Most experts agree that this type of fertilizer recommendation system is able to fulfil the growing demands of a growing population, while keeping the environment in good condition for the next generations. The experts also agree that fertilizer application could not be replaced widely with organic farming alone. An environmentally friendly fertilizer recommendation system has to be sensitive enough to respond to the effects of different conditions, e.g. great spatial variability of soil characteristics, mosaic-like soil cover, climate, crop rotation practices, soil nutrient supply, etc. There was a dramatic change in Hungarian agriculture at the beginning of the 90s, as the result of which the use of fertilizers decreased sharply for several reasons, e.g. privatization, changes in ownership, withdrawal of state subsidies for mineral fertilizers, drought, etc. Both Hungarian agriculture and the country as a whole is now facing two challenges, i.e. to overcome the economic difficulties and to complete the final phase of preparations to join the EU. Land use change scenarios have proved that the natural endowments of Hungary are suitable for integrating agricultural production with environmental and landscape protection and nature conservation.

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respect to spatial variability of soil hydrophysical properties. Agrokémia és Talajtan, Vol. 51, No. 1–2., pp. 7–16. Rajkai K. Moisture regime with respect to spatial variability of

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Stafford, J. V.:1999. An investigation into the within-field spatial variability of grain quality, In: Precision agriculture’ 99: Proceedings of the 2 nd European Conference on Precision Agriculture, edited by J.V Stafford, (Sheffield Academic Press

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