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The paper discusses a possibility to grow seeds on solutions of microelements and application of sprouts enriched in such a way as an alternative to commercial dietary supplements. It contains a short review of the approaches reported till now and a systematic experimental study, carried on the most frequently used seeds (Lens culinaris, Helianthus annuus, Vigna radiata, Glycine max, and Lepidium sativum).Seven metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Mn) were studied. Seeds were grown on cellulose in 20°C temperature using deionized water enriched with metals in concentrations: 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.125 mg/L in a period of 4 days. The reference samples were the seeds grown on pure deionized water. Sprouts were mineralized by microwave radiation, and the metal content was quantified by ion chromatography with on-line post-column derivatization and spectrophotometric detection.The conclusions can be treated as general recommendations, which seeds should be grown and what concentrations of metals in solutions should be applied to provide good enrichment and to avoid risk of microelement overdose.

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This study was to examine the effects of four fungal polysaccharides, namely exo-polysaccharide (EPS), water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxideextracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), and hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS) obtained from the endophytic fungus Bionectra pityrodes Fat6, on the sprout growth and flavonoids production of Fagopyrum tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and functional metabolites accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the polysaccharide species along with its treatment dose. With application of 150 mg/l of EPS, 150 mg/l of WPS and 200 mg/l of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yield of buckwheat sprouts was effectively increased to 49.18 mg/(100 sprouts), 50.54 mg/(100 sprouts), and 52.27 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.57- to 1.66-fold in comparison with the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed the accumulation of bioactive flavonoids resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by fungal polysaccharide treatments. It could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts applied with specific fungal elicitors.

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Studies of perennial plants generally search for a seed size vs. seed number trade-off. Surprisingly, the fact that perennials may replace an investment in large seeds by the allocation to vegetative propagation has not yet been investigated as an additional pathway enabling species coexistence. We focused on the mechanisms of coexistence in Carex elata and C. elongata, two co-occurring clonal sedges dominant in European swamp alder forests. We asked the following questions: i) Is the number of germinated seeds a better predictor of species coexistence than the total number of seeds? ii) What recruitment conditions and competition rules determine vegetative sprouting to be an alternative to large, competitively superior seeds? We measured several species functional traits related to the colonisation and fitness of perennials. To examine the competitive hierarchy between species and microsite species preferences, we analysed the effects of environmental factors and plant densities on fitness-related traits using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Then, using a series of spatially explicit simulations partly parameterised based on the field measurement, we evaluated the importance of seed and ramet propagation and recruitment conditions for long-term species coexistence. SEM indicated a competitive hierarchy and a large overlap in microsite preferences between species. As a response to our initial questions we found that: i) Only differences in the numbers of germinated seeds, allowed the two species to coexist. If we consider only differences in the total number of seeds, the superior competitor (Carex elata) outcompeted the inferior competitor (C. elongata) in all scenarios. This is because the former produced about three-times as many seeds as the latter. ii) We show that vegetative sprouting represents an additional pathway for the seed size-number trade-off when the competitive superiority of species is attributed to vegetative propagation. This is another way that a species deals with the omnipresent seeds of other species. Taken together, our study demonstrates that differences in seed performance, coupled with differences in vegetative propagation related to competitive ability, are an additional mechanism allowing the coexistence of perennial plants.

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Auld, A.S., Paulsen, G.M. 2003. Effect of drought and high temperature during maturation on pre-harvest sprouting hard white winter wheat. Cereal Res. Comm. 31 :169

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hypertrophy in its active form and is sought to be completely inactivated in soy products.Several processing methods like heating, extrusion, sprouting, or combinations of these treatments are employed by soy food industry to inactivate KTI ( Dia et al

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Abbreviations PHS pre-harvest sprouting PM physiological maturity

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Xiao, S.H., Yan, C.S., Zhang, H.P., Sun, G.Z. 2002a. Studies on Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat. China Agricultural Science and Technology Press, Beijing, pp. 266–292. Sun G

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469 Flintham, J., Adlam, R., Bassoi, M., Haldsworth, M., Gale, M. 2002. Mapping genes for resistance to sprouting damage in wheat. Euphytica 126 :39

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Bennett, D. L., French, J., Priestley, J. V., McMahon, S. B. (1996) NGF but not NT-3 or BDNF prevents the A fiber sprouting into lamina II of the spinal cord that occurs following axotomy. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 8

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, P. , Twardowska , M. 2007 . QTLs for resistance to preharvest sprouting in rye ( Secale cereale L.) . J. Appl. Genet. 48 : 211 – 217 . Mergoum , M. , Pfeiffer , W

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