Authors:Valeria Palermo, Ángel G. Sathicq, Patricia G. Vázquez, Horacio J. Thomas, and Gustavo P. Romanelli
adsorption technique. These catalysts were well characterized by means of 31 P-NMR, UV–visible spectra, FT-IR spectra, thermal analysis, and texturalproperties. Mo, V and Bi amounts were estimated by ICP-AES analysis.
Authors:Anikó Kovács, Lilla Körmendi, and Katalin Badakné Kerti
Introduction Hazelnut spreads are considered as a complex multiphase system, which contain different dispersed solid particulars and a continuous fat phase ( Glicerina et al., 2013 ). The physical attributes such as texturalproperties, viscosity
Authors:Luca Serventi, Joseph Sachleben, and Yael Vodovotz
heating. Microwaved doughs’ exterior remains tough while the interior is hard and chewy [ 2 ]. These and other deleterious texturalproperties have been discussed elsewhere [ 3 – 7 ].
Par-baking the dough prior to reheating improves bread quality
Authors:Alejandro López-Gaona, José De los Reyes, Julia Aguilar, and Nancy Martín
Pt/MCM, Pt/SiO2, Pd/MCM and Pd/SiO2 were prepared and characterized by H2-TPR, TEM, 29Si-CP-MAS-NMR, DRS-UV-Vis and tested in the hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane. Differences in the catalytic behavior
were related with textural properties.
Authors:A. Oliveira, G. Marchetti, and M. Carmo Rangel
The effect of the iron precursor on the thermal decomposition of iron oxyhydroxides was studied by DSC, DTA and TG in this
work. Samples were prepared from iron nitrate, iron sulfate and iron chloride and the thermal curves obtained were analyzed
by specific area measurements, X-ray diffraction and Mssbauer spectroscopy. It was found that the iron oxyhydroxide precursors
affect the temperatures of the hematite formation as well as the textural properties of the final hematite producing particles
with different diameters as following: iron sulfate (3.3 nm)<iron nitrate (15 nm)<iron chloride (24 nm).
Potato wedges were deep, shallow, and par-fried in soybean, sesame, and mustard oils using a laboratory formulated citric acid based antioxidant. The wedges were stored at –18 °C for 10, 20, 30, and 40 days. The quality of the wedges was assessed by subjective method (sensory analysis) and objective method (texture studies). Fuzzy logic was applied as a tool to analyze the linguistic data of subjective evaluation. Objective evaluation was conducted by studies on hardness, shear modulus and shear energy of the wedges. The wedges with highest defuzzified scores (obtained by sensory evaluation) and minimum changes in textural properties (P<0.05) were obtained in par-fried soybean oil (after 40 days storage) and in deep fried sesame and mustard oils (both after 30 days storage). The ranking of fried wedges (in the antioxidant administered oils) based on defuzzified scores after 40 days were: sesame > mustard > soybean (deep fry), mustard > soybean > sesame (shallow fry) and soybean > mustard > sesame (par-fry).
Authors:B. Dragoi, V. Rakic, E. Dumitriu, and A. Auroux
This work is focused on the gas and liquid-phase adsorption of pollutants: propanol, 2-butanone, phenol and nicotine onto
zeolites (H-BETA, H-ZSM-5, H-MCM-22, and clinoptilolite). Textural properties and origin of zeolites were taken into account
as criteria of adsorbents selection. The aldehyde and the ketone were adsorbed in the gas phase using microcalorimetry linked
to a volumetric line to evaluate adsorption. Adsorptions in water were carried out for phenol and nicotine and the evolved
heats during adsorption were measured by a differential heat flow reaction calorimeter with stirring. Results are discussed
in relation with the pore sizes and various interactions which could occur between the adsorbent and the adsorbate.
Authors:O. Velasco-González, S. Echavarría-Almeida, A. Pajarito, and E. San Martín-Martinez
The textural properties and hydration capacity of legumes in general and of beans in particular is a subject about which much research has been done. However, at present there is still no practical answer to the “Hard to Shell” and “Hard to Cook” effects. The present investigation studies 14 varieties of recently picked beans that were grown in Mexico. The beans were classified by size using K-means multivariate analysis, and three fractions were obtained for each variety: large (L), medium (M) and small (S). These fractions were evaluated for hardness, water absorption rate and total water absorption. It was found that the small bean fraction of the varieties studied had the lowest hardness values in comparison to the medium and large fractions. This same behaviour was observed for the water absorption rate and total water absorption; the smaller beans absorbed water more quickly and had greater total water absorption than the other fractions. One kind of bean (Pinto Villa) proved to be much harder than the other varieties. The total water absorption increased and hardness decreased for beans with greater ash content, but no correlation was found between these two properties (water absorption and hardness) for protein and fiber content.
Authors:Tsuey-Lin Tsai, Chi-Chang Liu, Chun-Yu Chuang, Hwa-Jou Wei, and Lee-Chung Men
Activity concentrations using gamma-ray spectrometer and distributions of natural radionuclides in soil samples collected
were investigated to assess the environmental radioactivity and characterization of radiological hazard. The average concentrations
of 238U, 232Th series and 40K in the 5 cm depth soil were 22.53, 33.43 and 406.62 Bq kg−1, respectively, which was within world median ranges in the UNSCEAR 2000 report. The average absorbed dose rate estimated
by soil activity and annual effective doses were 49.32 nGy h−1 and 60.48 μSv, respectively. Since the soil is an important building material, the mean radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external (Hex) and internal (Hin) hazard index using various models given in the literature for the study area were evaluated as 101.72 Bq kg−1, 0.27 and 0.34, respectively, which were below the recommended limits. The effects of pH value, conductivity, true density
and textural properties of soil samples on the natural radionuclide levels were also studied. The application of cluster analysis
(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), coupled with Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, were utilized to analyze
the data, identify and clarify the effects of physico-chemical properties on natural radioactivity levels. The CA and PCA
results showed that the former method yielded three distinctive groups of the soil variables whereas the latter one yielded
the number of variables into three factors with 87.5% variance explanation.