Authors:B.L. Béres, N.Z. Lupwayi, F.J. Larney, B. Ellert, E.G. Smith, T.K. Turkington, D. Pageau, K. Semagn, and Z. Wang
Research indicates that not all crops respond similarly to cropping diversity and the response of triticale (× Triticosecale ssp.) has not been documented. We investigated the effects of rotational diversity on cereals in cropping sequences with canola (Brassica napus L.), field pea (Pisum sativum L.), or an intercrop (triticale:field pea). Six crop rotations were established consisting of two, 2-yr low diversity rotations (LDR) (continuous triticale (T-T_LDR) and triticale-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (T-W_LDR)); three, 2-yr moderate diversity rotations (MDR) (triticale-field pea (T-P_MDR), triticale-canola (T-C_MDR), and a triticale: field pea intercrop (T- in P_MDR)); and one, 3-yr high diversity rotation (HDR) (canola-triticale-field pea (C-T-P_HDR)). The study was established in Lethbridge, Alberta (irrigated and rainfed); Swift Current (rainfed) and Canora (rainfed), Saskatchewan, Canada; and carried out from 2008 to 2014. Triticale grain yield for the 3-yr HDR was superior over the LDR rotations and the MDR triticale-field pea system; however, results were similar for triticale-canola, and removal of canola from the system caused a yield drag in triticale. Triticale biomass was superior for the 3-yr HDR. Moreover, along with improved triticale grain yield, the 3-yr HDR provided greater yield stability across environments. High rotational diversity (C-T-P_HDR) resulted in the highest soil microbial community and soil carbon concentration, whereas continuous triticale provided the lowest. Net economic returns were also superior for C-T-P_HDR ($670 ha–1) and the lowest for T-W_LDR ($458 ha–1). Overall, triticale responded positively to increased rotational diversity and displayed greater stability with the inclusion of field pea, leading to improved profitability and sustainability of the system.
Isolates of Puccinia triticina were
obtained from wheat and triticale nurseries and fields in Hungary. Pathotypes
were determined on 15 Thatcher wheat lines that are near-isogenic for leaf rust
resistance. Thirteen pathotypes were identified from 70 Puccinia triticina
isolates collected from infected wheat plants, and 2 pathotypes were identified
from 12 Puccinia triticina isolates obtained from infected triticale leaves.
Most pathotypes identified in Hungary were virulent to resistance genes Lr2b,
Lr2c, Lr3, Lr11, Lr17, Lr21, Lr26, but pathotypes from triticale were virulent
only to Lr2b, Lr2c and Lr11. Among the examined 15 Lr genes Lr2a, Lr9, Lr19,
Lr23, Lr24 and Lr28 were highly effective. The most common pathotypes were
43522, 43722 and 53522 on wheat plants, among them 53522 was new in rust
populations. Pathotypes 41000 and 41100 obtained from infected triticale plants
were identified for the first time in the Hungarian Puccinia triticina
populations. The number of pathotypes with virulence to Lr1, Lr2b and Lr21
increased from 1999 to 2004. Virulence to other Lr genes declined, because a
lot of susceptible cultivars were removed from production during the past five
years. In 2004, most predominant cultivars grown in Hungary were resistant or
moderately resistant to leaf rust.
Authors:K. Wajdzik, G. Gołębiowska, M. Dyda, K. Gawrońska, M. Rapacz, and M. Wędzony
The increasing economic importance of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) makes this synthetic hybrid cereal an interesting object of genetic studies. Genomic regions (QTL) of morphological winter triticale traits were determined using the mapping population of 89 doubled haploids lines (DHs) developed from F1 hybrid of cv. ‘Hewo’ and cv. ‘Magnat’ accompanied with the genetic map consisting of 20 linkage groups assigned to the A (7), B (7), and R (6) genomes (total of 3539 DArT, SNP-DArT and SSR markers, length of 4997.4 cM). Five independent experiments were performed in the field and greenhouse controlled conditions. A total of 12 major QTLs located on 2B, 5A, 5R, and 6B chromosomes connected to the stem length, the plant height, the spike length, the number of the productive spikelets per spike, the number of grains per spike, and the thousand kernel weight were identified by a composite interval mapping (CIM).
The occurrence frequency of structural changes in plastid genome of albino plants from 27 genotypes of Triticum aestivum L. and × Triticosecale Witt. produced by anther culture method was studied. PCR analysis of genome rearrangements in plastids of albino plants has revealed similarity of plasmon changes in the given cereal crops and shown that a number of genes related to photosynthesis exposed to changes in plastid genomes studied. atpB gene, encoding β-subunit of CF1-complex of ATP synthase, was not detected with a high frequency in chlorophyll-deficient plants of wheat and triticale. It is supposed that deletions of photosynthetic genes, especially atpB gene, which take place in evolutionary unstable regions of chloroplast genome with a high frequency, are the major cause of albino plants formation in anther culture of cereals. Genes psbA, psbC, psbD of the photosystem II are amplified practically in all the studied plants of wheat and triticale that verifies the earlier obtained information about conservation of the region including the given genes within the limits of a large singlecopy region of chloroplast DNA.