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. , Blangiforti , S. , Cambrea , M. , Gallo , G. , Licciardello , S. , Spina , A. 2008 . Sicilian durum wheat landraces for production of traditional breads . Proc. Int. Durum Wheat Symposium “From Seed to Pasta: The Durum Wheat Chain

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors: S. Šliková, M. Havrlentová, P. Hauptvogel, Ľ. Mendel, E. Gregová, and V. Šudyová

Winter wheat landraces and modern Slovak cultivars were inoculated with the pathogen Fusarium culmorum Sacc. by spraying in May 2008, in plot experiments under natural conditions in Piešťany, Slovakia. The objective was to examine the responses of the tested genotypes to inoculation with F. culmorum and to determine changes in the β-D-glucan content in the kernels. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and the β-D-glucan and deoxynivalenol (DON) contents in the grains were determined using Megazyme and Ridascreen® Fast DON assay kits. Wheat landraces had lower AUDPC and FDK, and accumulated 67.4% less DON than modern cultivars. There were highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) between AUDPC and DON content, between FDK and DON, and between AUDPC and FDK. The correlation between β-D-glucan content and AUDPC was also significant (P < 0.05), but not correlations between β-D-glucan and other traits. The β-D-glucan content in the grain of wheat genotypes artificially inoculated with F. culmorum was lower than in grains without infection. The wheat landraces contained more β-D-glucan than modern cultivars and showed higher resistance to F. culmorum. The three wheat landraces had significantly lower spike and kernel infection compared to modern cultivars and could be used to breed elite cultivars with enhanced Fusarium head blight resistance.

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In many world regions, osmotic and salt stresses are becoming the primary environmental conditions limiting successful establishment of crops. The old durum wheat landraces may provide a source of genes useful to enhance crop resilience to the abiotic stresses of dryland areas or foreseen as a result of climate change. With this in mind, in order to determine the effects of salt and osmotic stresses on durum wheat germination, an old Sicilian durum wheat landrace “Timilia” and a relatively recent cultivar “Mongibello” were investigated at various iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl and mannitol at osmotic potentials of: 0 – control, –0.125, –0.250, –0.500 and –0.750 MPa.

Under stress conditions, different germination and early growth behavior was observed in the two durum wheat genotypes. Timilia presented almost stable germination even at the highest osmotic stresses (96.7% and 88.3% seed germination at 0 and –0.750 MPa, respectively) showing a higher capacity of seed imbibition than Mongibello. The latter thus showed a higher sensitivity than the old landrace to the studied stresses. The variability ascertained in the response to salinity stress indicate that Timilia could be a source of interesting genes for breeding programs.

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Vernalization and photoperiod response genes play a significant role in the geographical adaptation, agronomic performance and yield potential of crops. Therefore, understanding the distribution pattern and allelic diversity for vernalization and photoperiod genes are important in any wheat breeding program. In this study, we screened 63 bread wheat cultivars and 7 bread wheat landraces from Turkey for photoperiod (Ppd-D1) and vernalization genes (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1 and Vrn-B3) using diagnostic molecular markers. The photoperiod insensitive dominant allele, Ppd-D1a, was present in 60% of wheat cultivars and 42% of landraces, whereas, all other genotypes carried the photoperiod sensitive allele Ppd-D1b as recessive allele. Twenty-four cultivars and two landraces contained recessive alleles for all four VRN loci, whereas 39 wheat cultivars and 6 landraces contained one or more dominant VRN alleles. The highest percentage of Turkish wheat cultivars contained the dominant Vrn-B1 allele followed by Vrn-D1 and Vrn-A1. Information for vernalization and photoperiod alleles in Turkish germplasm will facilitate the planning and implementation of molecular markers in wheat breeding programs. This information will be helpful to develop elite wheat cultivars carrying suitable vernalization and photoperiod alleles with higher grain yield potential and better quality suitable for different production environments through marker assisted selection.

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The main objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic gain for grain yield, yield attributes and drought tolerance of 11 durum breeding lines and also to compare it with one modern cultivar and two durum and bread wheat landraces in contrasting environment groups in a period of four cropping seasons (2005–09) within the Iran/ICARDA joint project for moderately cold rainfed areas of Iran. The significant genotype × year interaction indicated that the average yield performance of genotypes across environments was not consistent over the years. Genetic gain (%) for grain yield was distinguishable between the stressed and non-stressed environments. A positive genetic gain (27.7 to 23.9%) was observed in the non-stressed environment and a negative genetic gain (−11.5 to −24.1%) in the stressed environment for the breeding lines, compared to the landraces, suggesting that the evaluation of breeding materials under non-stressed conditions should be continued. Unlike the modern cultivar, the landraces were low yielding, and less responsive to non-stressed environments for grain yield and yield attributes. The drought resistance indices, i.e. tolerance index (TOL) and stress susceptibility index (SSI), were better in landraces than breeding lines, while the drought tolerance indices, i.e. stress tolerance index (STI) and drought response index (DRI), were better in breeding lines. In contrast with landraces, the modern cultivar and the breeding lines showed significant changes for both grain yield and drought tolerance.

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High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and baking quality-related traits were studied in 50 Indian wheat landraces. Scoring of germplasm based on electrophoresis patterns using the Payne method showed that the quality scores varied from 4 to 8. Based on this scoring, 13 cultivars were ranked as superior. Cluster analysis based on electrophoresis patterns and Jaccard similarity criteria divided the cultivars into five groups, with 13 cultivars in the first cluster. There was no similarity between the grouping pattern based on HMW glutenin sub-units and quality-related traits. In the present study, the quality of the flour of six wheat varieties was weak, so these varieties were only suitable for biscuit making. The flour of 31 wheat varieties showed medium strength. The remaining 13 wheat varieties had strong flour. Considering the great variation observed for quality-related traits and HMW glutenin sub-units, it can be concluded that these cultivars are potential sources of desirable quality traits for use in bread wheat breeding programmes to improve bread-making quality.

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wheat landraces from Pakistan based on polymorphism for high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS). Pak. J. Bot. 36 :835–843. Anwar R. Genetic diversity in wheat landraces

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors: M. Hudcovicová, V. Šudyová, S. Šliková, E. Gregová, J. Kraic, F. Ordon, D. Mihálik, V. Horevaj, and Z. Šramková

Gregová, E., Hermuth, J., Kraic, J., Dotlačil, L. (1999): Protein heterogeneity in European wheat landraces and obsolete cultivars. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution , 46 , 521–528. Dotlačil L

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. 2014 . Adaptation patterns and yield stability of durum wheat landraces to highland cold rainfed areas of Iran . Crop Sci. 54 : 944 – 954 . Pacheco , A. , Vargas , M. , Alvarado

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184 190 Tesemma, T., Tsegaye, S., Belay, G., Bechere, E., Mitiku D. (1998): Stability of performance of tetraploid wheat landraces in the Ethiopian highland. Euphytica

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