Authors:N. Aiter, A. Lehad, B. Haddad, A. Taibi, S. Meziani, Mohand-Larbi Rabhi, L. Khelifi, and C. Chaouia
Several grapevine viruses were reported in Algeria and especially in grapevine germplasm collection, therefore it is a great challenge to free these varieties from virus infection before any breeding programs. Our study focused on the development of chemotherapy on autochthonous varieties collected in the grapevine germplasm collection of ITAFV. All these varieties were tested by DAS-ELISA and the presence of GLRaV-3 and GFLV was confirmed in all used samples for the sanitation. After 8 weeks of shoot tips in vitro culture in a modified M S medium containing ribavirin, DAS-ELISA test revealed that GLRaV-3 was completely eliminated and GFLV to a significant rate.
Authors:S. Popovski, K. Kos, B. Jakovac Strajn, and F.A. Celar
The genus Fusarium consists of multiple diverse species, which, as a result of their frequency in nature and pathogenicity, are significant in agriculture, as well as in human and veterinary medicine. In the course of field trials, by using standard phytopathological methods, and performing analyses of 19 different varieties of wheat and a portion of infected grains gathered from two distinct locations in Slovenia, we have determined the presence of various phytopathogenic species of the genus Fusarium. Because of the reliability, the experiment was performed in two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013. A laboratory analysis was conducted with an ELISA test on all grain samples for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration. The results show that the main differences in the infection levels (F. culmorum + F. graminearum; FC + FG) of wheat samples were found in Jable (humid area), at the same time showing higher levels of DON content than Rakičan (dry area). Such a statement is supported by correlation test, where correlation is evident between FC + FG and DON in every variation. The data for both wheat types (awned and awnless) together showed that the grain in Jable is statistically significant more infected by FC + FG when compared to that in Rakičan. Moreover, our descriptive analysis confirms that the infection rate of grain with FC and FG shows a strong correlation with the emergence of DON.
Authors:H. Mahmoudi, M. Salari, M. Ghayeb Zamharir, and M. Ghorbani
A safflower disease was observed in the fields of South Khorasan (Iran) in 2017–2018. Affected plants had extensive fasciation, bushy growth, small leaves, phyllody and shortened internodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed using universal phytoplasma primers pairs P1/P7, R16mF1/mR1 and M1/M2 to detect putative phytoplasma (s). Nested PCR analyses showed that all symptomatic plants were positive for phytoplasma infection, while asymptomatic plants were negative. Nucleotide sequence analysis and RFLP analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences indicated that safflower fasciation in Iran was associated with a phytoplasma that belonged to the peanut witches' broom group (16SrII). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that safflowers fasciation phytoplasma (SaP) must be classified in ‘Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia’ (16SrII) taxonomic group. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a phytoplasma associated with safflower fasciation in Iran and the world.
We compared the haematological and biochemical values within a population of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) in the Chafarinas Islands (Northern Africa), in non-breeding (February) and breeding (May) animals. We collected blood samples from 51 adults. We found that according to the haematological data, there was a significant variation in haemoglobin content, and a higher proportion of heterophils, thrombocytes, and Haemoproteus infection in breeding individuals with a lower level in basophils. Blood biochemistry showed a higher level in plasmatic proteins, calcium, phosphorus, thiobarbituric acidreactive substances and alkaline phosphatase as well as alanine aminotransferase activity in breeding animals while cholesterol and phospholipid levels showed a lower level. There was also a sexual difference in triglycerides, albumin, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and alkaline phosphatase activity. Hence, the haematological and blood chemistry values of yellow-legged gulls showed some differences between breeding and non-breeding individuals as well as between sexes.