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related to mainly immunocompromised patients, and a wide range of clinical complications can occur [ 2 ]. The plastic genome of A. baumannii , which mutates rapidly when faced with severe conditions, and fundamental mechanisms of virulence beyond

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CDI is generally contracted endogenously and by fecal–oral route, primarily through the hands of medical staff [ 1 , 31 ]. C. difficile has many virulence factors, including ability to synthesize toxins A, B and binary toxin (CDT), presence of cilia

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membrane porins OmpK35 and OmpK36 play roles in both antimicrobial resistance and virulence . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55 , 1485 – 1493 ( 2011 ). 10.1128/AAC.01275-10 2

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Roya Ghanavati, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Fateme Navab-Moghadam, Hossein Kazemian, Gholamreza Irajian, and Shabnam Razavi

-acquired and healthcare-associated infections worldwide [ 3 ]. In recent decades, due to its tendency to develop antibiotic resistance and increasing virulence factor, lead to emerging this bacterium as clinically important organism [ 4, 5 ]. Klebsiella

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37 115 125 Head, N.E., Yu, H.W.: Cross-sectional analysis of clinical and environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Biofilm formation, virulence, and

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, opportunistic pathogen with low virulence, mainly implicated in nosocomial outbreaks affecting neonates and immunocompromised patients [ 4 , 5 ]. Most of the affected patients in the literature had severe underlying illnesses (hematological malignancies or

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Bojan Pavlović, Dragana D. Božić, Jovica Milovanović, Ana Jotić, Vojko Djukić, Slobodanka Djukić, Neda Konstantinović, and Ivana Ćirković

superior biofilm structure may be an important virulence factor in resistant bacterial strains, which is a result of great importance for future research studies. The use of antibiotics for surgical procedures is a common practice among

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Shams T. Khan, Ajmaluddin Malik, Rizwan Wahab, Omar H. Abd-Elkader, Maqusood Ahamed, Javed Ahmad, Javed Musarrat, Maqsood A. Siddiqui, and Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy

environmental health point of view. Urease helps urinary tract infection bacteria to establish themselves in humans, in fact, it is emerging as a general microbial virulence factor [ 9 ]. Furthermore, urease-producing bacteria in soils also result in the

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Lockhart, S. R., Wu, W., Radke, J. B., Zhao, R., Soll, D. R.: Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/α over a/a or α/α offspring conserves the mating system of C. albicans . Genetics 169 , 1883–1890 (2005

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. , O’Donoghue , M. , Feeney , A. , Sleator , R. D. : Acinetobacter baumannii : An emerging opportunistic pathogen . Virulence 3 , 243 – 250

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