Authors:Kinga Hadzsiev, A. Tárnok, G. Kosztolányi, and K. Méhes
In a prospective study, the occurrence of malignancies in children referred to genetic counseling for congenital malformations, in their sibs, parents and grandparents was registered in 120 families by means of personal interviews. One hundred-and-twenty age matched subjects, admitted for acute respiratory infections or trauma, served as controls. No difference in the occurrence of tumors or leukemias between the two groups was found when the values of patients, sibs, and parents were compared. At the same time, the grandparents of probands with malformations had had significantly more malignancies than the grandparents of the controls. This may be explained by the fact that grandparents lived beyond the age of the usual onset of common cancers and leukemias.
Authors:W.J. Chi, Z.Y. Wang, J.M. Liu, C. Zhang, Y.H. Wu, and Y.J. Bai
Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient for plant growth and yield production, and rice grown in paddy soil mainly uses ammonium (NH4+) as its N source. Previous studies have shown that N status is tightly connected to plant defense; however, the roles of NH4+ uptake and assimilation in rice sheath blight disease response have not been studied previously. Here, we analyzed the effects of different N sources on plant defense against Rhizoctonia solani. The results indicated that rice plants grown in N-free conditions had higher resistance to sheath blight than those grown under N conditions. In greater detail, rice plants cultured with glutamine as the sole N source were more susceptible to sheath blight disease compared to the groups using NH4+ and nitrate (NO3–) as sole N sources. N deficiency severely inhibited plant growth; therefore, ammonium transporter 1;2 overexpressors (AMT1;2 OXs) were generated to test their growth and defense ability under low N conditions. AMT1;2 OXs increased N use efficiency and exhibited less susceptible symptoms to R. solani and highly induced the expression of PBZ1 compared to the wild-type controls upon infection of R. solani. Furthermore, the glutamine synthetase 1;1 (GS1;1) mutant (gs1;1) was more susceptible to R. solani infection than the wild-type control, and the genetic combination of AMT1;2 OX and gs1;1 revealed that AMT1;2 OX was less susceptible to R. solani and required GS1;1 activity. In addition, cellular NH4+ content was higher in AMT1;2 OX and gs1;1 plants, indicating that NH4+ was not directly controlling plant defense. In conclusion, the present study showed that the activation of NH4+ uptake and assimilation were required for rice resistance against sheath blight disease.
Authors:W. Abera, H. Shimelis, J. Derera, M. Worku, and M. Laing
Productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) is curtailed by a number of stress factors, predominantly by diseases and insect pests. The Northern leaf blight disease of maize caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs inflict significant yield losses in the humid tropical regions. The objectives of this study were to determine the leaf blight response of 50 elite maize inbred lines developed for the mid-altitude, sub-humid tropics and to select promising parents for resistance breeding. Inbred lines were evaluated in the field using a 5 × 10 alpha lattice design with three replications. Plants were artificially inoculated at the 4–6 leaf stages during 2011 and 2012. Data on disease severity and incidence, AUDPC and yields were recorded. Inbred lines had significant differences for E. turcicum reactions, and were classified into resistant, intermediate or susceptible categories. The mean disease severity ranged from 2.04% for the inbred line 136-a to 3.25% (Kuleni-C1-101-1-1-1). The upper leaf area infection of inbred lines 143-5-I and 136-a was 3.3%, while the line Kuleni-C1-101-1-1-1 displayed 100% infection. Further, 136-a developed the lowest AUDPC score at 238, whereas Kuleni-C1-101-1-1-1 had the maximum at 700. Overall, inbred lines CML202, 144-7-b, 139-5-j, 136-a, 30H83-7-1-1-1-2-1, ILoo’E-1-9-1-1-1-1-1 and 142-1-e, were identified as promising sources of resistance against E. turcicum. The selected elite inbred lines would be recommended for use in general varietal development, disease management and to enhance maize productivity, in the mid-altitude sub-humid tropics.
Authors:P. Malathi, P. Padmanaban, R. Viswanathan, D. Mohanraj, and A. Ramesh Sundar
Pandey, S. and Agnihorti, V. P. (1996): Elimination of red rot infection in seed pieces by chemotherapy: a new approach in disease control. Indian Phytopath. 49, 48-51.
Elimination of red rot infection in seed pieces by
Authors:E. Kiss, G. Kazinczi, J. Horváth, S. Kobza, T. Baranyi, M. Varga, B. Havasréti, and A. Fehér
Basky, Zs. (1983): A new way to use paraffinic oil-surfactant blends ‘ATPLUS 411 F’ in seed cucumbers to decrease stylet-borne virus infections. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent 48/3, 839-846.
A new way to use paraffinic oil
Authors:Samuel Füchtbauer, Soraya Mousavi, Stefan Bereswill, and Markus M. Heimesaat
environmental selective pressure triggering adaptive evolution [ 2, 4 ]. In particular plants have evolved a multifaceted repertoire of molecules to combat infections and to protect against herbivore predators [ 2 ]. To overcome their vulnerability towards
Authors:L. G. Puskás, L. Tiszlavicz, Zs. Rázga, L. L. Torday, T. Krenács, and J. Gy. Papp
. J., Bonora, E., Oberhollenzer, F., Muggeo, M., Xu, Q., Wick, G., Poewe, W., Willeit, J. (2001) Chronic infections and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis: Prospective results from a large population study. Circulation 103 , 1064
Király, Z., Barna, B. and érsek, T. (1972): Hypersensitivity as a consequence, not the cause, of plant resistance to infection. Nature 239, 215–219.
Hypersensitivity as a consequence, not the cause, of plant resistance to