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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Kinga Hadzsiev, A. Tárnok, G. Kosztolányi, and K. Méhes

In a prospective study, the occurrence of malignancies in children referred to genetic counseling for congenital malformations, in their sibs, parents and grandparents was registered in 120 families by means of personal interviews. One hundred-and-twenty age matched subjects, admitted for acute respiratory infections or trauma, served as controls. No difference in the occurrence of tumors or leukemias between the two groups was found when the values of patients, sibs, and parents were compared. At the same time, the grandparents of probands with malformations had had significantly more malignancies than the grandparents of the controls. This may be explained by the fact that grandparents lived beyond the age of the usual onset of common cancers and leukemias.

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Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient for plant growth and yield production, and rice grown in paddy soil mainly uses ammonium (NH4 +) as its N source. Previous studies have shown that N status is tightly connected to plant defense; however, the roles of NH4 + uptake and assimilation in rice sheath blight disease response have not been studied previously. Here, we analyzed the effects of different N sources on plant defense against Rhizoctonia solani. The results indicated that rice plants grown in N-free conditions had higher resistance to sheath blight than those grown under N conditions. In greater detail, rice plants cultured with glutamine as the sole N source were more susceptible to sheath blight disease compared to the groups using NH4 + and nitrate (NO3 ) as sole N sources. N deficiency severely inhibited plant growth; therefore, ammonium transporter 1;2 overexpressors (AMT1;2 OXs) were generated to test their growth and defense ability under low N conditions. AMT1;2 OXs increased N use efficiency and exhibited less susceptible symptoms to R. solani and highly induced the expression of PBZ1 compared to the wild-type controls upon infection of R. solani. Furthermore, the glutamine synthetase 1;1 (GS1;1) mutant (gs1;1) was more susceptible to R. solani infection than the wild-type control, and the genetic combination of AMT1;2 OX and gs1;1 revealed that AMT1;2 OX was less susceptible to R. solani and required GS1;1 activity. In addition, cellular NH4 + content was higher in AMT1;2 OX and gs1;1 plants, indicating that NH4 + was not directly controlling plant defense. In conclusion, the present study showed that the activation of NH4 + uptake and assimilation were required for rice resistance against sheath blight disease.

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Productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) is curtailed by a number of stress factors, predominantly by diseases and insect pests. The Northern leaf blight disease of maize caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs inflict significant yield losses in the humid tropical regions. The objectives of this study were to determine the leaf blight response of 50 elite maize inbred lines developed for the mid-altitude, sub-humid tropics and to select promising parents for resistance breeding. Inbred lines were evaluated in the field using a 5 × 10 alpha lattice design with three replications. Plants were artificially inoculated at the 4–6 leaf stages during 2011 and 2012. Data on disease severity and incidence, AUDPC and yields were recorded. Inbred lines had significant differences for E. turcicum reactions, and were classified into resistant, intermediate or susceptible categories. The mean disease severity ranged from 2.04% for the inbred line 136-a to 3.25% (Kuleni-C1-101-1-1-1). The upper leaf area infection of inbred lines 143-5-I and 136-a was 3.3%, while the line Kuleni-C1-101-1-1-1 displayed 100% infection. Further, 136-a developed the lowest AUDPC score at 238, whereas Kuleni-C1-101-1-1-1 had the maximum at 700. Overall, inbred lines CML202, 144-7-b, 139-5-j, 136-a, 30H83-7-1-1-1-2-1, ILoo’E-1-9-1-1-1-1-1 and 142-1-e, were identified as promising sources of resistance against E. turcicum. The selected elite inbred lines would be recommended for use in general varietal development, disease management and to enhance maize productivity, in the mid-altitude sub-humid tropics.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: É. Nemes-Nikodém, E. Vörös, K. Pónyai, L. Párducz, S. Kárpáti, F. Rozgonyi, and Eszter Ostorházi

126 Módszertani ajánlás a szexuális úton terjedő infekciók kivizsgálására és kezelésére [Methodological letter of detection of sexually transmitted infections and treatment]. Egészség ügyi Közlöny

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. Y., Bai, B.H., Carver, B.F., Shaner, G.E., Hunger, R.M. (2005): Mapping of QTLs prolonging the latent period of Puccinia triticina infection in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 110, 244–251 Hunger R

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Pandey, S. and Agnihorti, V. P. (1996): Elimination of red rot infection in seed pieces by chemotherapy: a new approach in disease control. Indian Phytopath. 49, 48-51. Elimination of red rot infection in seed pieces by

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: E. Kiss, G. Kazinczi, J. Horváth, S. Kobza, T. Baranyi, M. Varga, B. Havasréti, and A. Fehér

Basky, Zs. (1983): A new way to use paraffinic oil-surfactant blends ‘ATPLUS 411 F’ in seed cucumbers to decrease stylet-borne virus infections. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent 48/3, 839-846. A new way to use paraffinic oil

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environmental selective pressure triggering adaptive evolution [ 2, 4 ]. In particular plants have evolved a multifaceted repertoire of molecules to combat infections and to protect against herbivore predators [ 2 ]. To overcome their vulnerability towards

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: L. G. Puskás, L. Tiszlavicz, Zs. Rázga, L. L. Torday, T. Krenács, and J. Gy. Papp

. J., Bonora, E., Oberhollenzer, F., Muggeo, M., Xu, Q., Wick, G., Poewe, W., Willeit, J. (2001) Chronic infections and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis: Prospective results from a large population study. Circulation 103 , 1064

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Recruitment limitation has been hypothesized to promote the maintenance of high species diversity in forests by slowing down competitive exclusion. However, the difference of recruitment limitation for tree species with varying seed masses, which is a common phenomenon in tropical or subtropical forests, is largely unknown. In this study we conducted a seed sowing experiment for five dominant tree species with varying seed mass (a proxy of dispersal ability) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at different successional stages to test the hypothesis that the determinants of species recruitment vary with their seed masses in Heishiding Nature Reserve (Guangdong Province, China). The effects of seed predators, soil pathogens, light conditions, plant litter, seed additions, and the presence of adult conspecific trees on the performance of seeds and seedlings for the five species were examined. We particularly investigated the effects of habitat hazards and seed size on the relative importance of dispersal limitation and establishment limitation. The results show that all five sowing species experienced recruitment limitation at the microsite level, although the causes of the limitation of these species varied between pathogen infection, animal predation, litter covering and shading. Seedling recruitment of the wind-dispersed, small-seeded species was mostly limited by microsite condition, while large-seeded species were mostly limited by dispersal ability.

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