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Barley recombinant lines obtained from crosses and backcrosses of common barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars Emir and Golden Promise with bulbosus barley grass (H. bulbosum L.) were tested against differential set of 14 Blumeria graminis D.C. Golovin ex Speer f. sp. hordei – synamorph Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. hordei Em Marchall isolates, pathogenic fungus causing powdery mildew. Powdery mildew resistance was found in 22 from 24 lines tested. Presence of unknown genes was postulated in 13 lines. In six of these lines the unknown genes were postulated present besides Mla12 allele originated from H. vulgare parent (cv. Emir). The only line resistant to infection, from all isolates used, was 181P94/1/3/1/1/1-2. Four other lines could be considered highly resistant, because they were susceptible to only one powdery mildew isolate. The possibilities to use the hybrid lines with identified resistance to powdery mildew, especially line 181P94/1/3/1/1/1-2 in barley breeding programs were discussed.

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Zymoseptoria tritici, a globally distributed pathogen, is responsible of Septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most damaging wheat diseases. In Italy the incidence of STB has increased during the past few years. The presence of Z. tritici on flag leaves of susceptible durum wheat plants, cultivar San Carlo, after a single artificial inoculation with two inoculum concentrations at different vegetative stages has been evaluated in the plain of Bologna (North of Italy), in a two year field study (2012–2013). The pathogen presence was also assessed in natural infection conditions after a fungicide application in the second year (2013). The results obtained, by visual examination (Incidence, Disease Severity) and DNA quantification by Real time PCR, demonstrated that BBCH 39 (flag leaf stage) is the most susceptible vegetative stage, independently of inoculum concentration and climatic conditions. A good correlation between Disease Severity and DNA quantity was observed in either sampling methods, entire flag leaves and flag leaf discs. Thereafter the most suitable period to obtain the best crop protection with only one fungicide treatment is the flag leaf stage.

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White rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SS) is one of the most devastating plant diseases of sunflower. Controlling this pathogen by available tools hardly result in acceptable control. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of plant resistance inducers, BTH (benzothiadiazole in Bion 50 WG) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on disease development of white rot in three sunflower genotypes. Defence responses were characterized by measuring the disease severity and identifying cellular/histological reactions (e.g. autofluorescence) of host plants upon infection. Depending on the host genotype, a single application of inducers reduced disease symptoms. Histological examination of host responses revealed that BTH and/or AMF pre-treatments significantly impeded the development of pathogenic hyphae in Iregi szürke csíkos and P63LE13 sunflower plants and it was associated with intensive autofluorescence of cells. Both localized and systemic induction of resistance was observed. Importantly, the frequency of mycorrhization of hybrid P63LE13 and PR64H41 was significantly increased upon BTH treatment, so it had a positive effect on the formation of plant-mycorrhiza interactions in sunflower. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the additive effect of BTH on mycorrhization and the positive effect of these inducers against SS in sunflower.

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Recruitment limitation has been hypothesized to promote the maintenance of high species diversity in forests by slowing down competitive exclusion. However, the difference of recruitment limitation for tree species with varying seed masses, which is a common phenomenon in tropical or subtropical forests, is largely unknown. In this study we conducted a seed sowing experiment for five dominant tree species with varying seed mass (a proxy of dispersal ability) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at different successional stages to test the hypothesis that the determinants of species recruitment vary with their seed masses in Heishiding Nature Reserve (Guangdong Province, China). The effects of seed predators, soil pathogens, light conditions, plant litter, seed additions, and the presence of adult conspecific trees on the performance of seeds and seedlings for the five species were examined. We particularly investigated the effects of habitat hazards and seed size on the relative importance of dispersal limitation and establishment limitation. The results show that all five sowing species experienced recruitment limitation at the microsite level, although the causes of the limitation of these species varied between pathogen infection, animal predation, litter covering and shading. Seedling recruitment of the wind-dispersed, small-seeded species was mostly limited by microsite condition, while large-seeded species were mostly limited by dispersal ability.

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The downside of plant tissue culture techniques is an unwanted microbial contamination. Elimination of contaminants is the first step of any successful investigation on plant tissue culture. Preliminary experiments on Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca (Norfolk-Island pine) (syn.: A. heterophylla) showed that most common decontaminants could not successfully eliminate the contamination. Therefore, nano silver (NS) colloids were evaluated for controlling contamination. Treatments were included soaking the explants in NS solution or adding NS to the culture medium. Explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with appropriate growth regulators for their establishment. Results showed that surface sterilization followed by treatment with 200 mg l−1 of NS with soaking time of 180 min reduced the bacterial contamination from 61.5% to 11.3% and adding 400 mg l−1 NS to the medium reduced the bacterial contamination from 81.25% to 18.75%. Nano silver could be applied without adverse effects on plant growth and development. This is the first report on in vitro establishment of A. excelsa R. Br. using NS to reduce bacterial infections.

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Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) is one of the most devastating wheat diseases. The wheat line N9134 contains PmAS846 that was transferred to N9134 from wild emmer wheat, and is still one of the most effective resistance genes in China. A full-length wheat RPM1 gene was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on the up-regulated probe sequence from differentially expressed transcripts during the N9134 and powdery mildew interaction. The gene was named TaRPM1, and the open reading frame (ORF) is 2721 nucleotides and encodes a polypeptide of 907 amino acids with a predicted isoelectric point of 4.86. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TaRPM1 was highly homologous on both Aegilops tauschii and Triticum urartu at both the nucleotide and protein level. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the TaRPM1 gene expression level in wheat leaves was found to be sharply up-regulated, while the transcript level was lowly induced in the root and stem. Under the powdery mildew treatment, the transcription profile of TaRPM1 was very strongly expressed at 48 hour post inoculation (hpi), which increased again to 96 hpi and reaching a high level at 120 hpi. Based on sequence similarities and positions, we inferred that the TaRPM1 gene was on wheat chromosome 3D. These results suggested that TaRPM1 plays an important role in the mechanism of innate immunity to infection by the powdery mildew pathogen.

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The lysosomal membrane-associated glycoproteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are the major constituents of lysosomal membranes with still undefined biological functions. As autophagy is an alternative model of programmed cell death in which lysosomes play a crucial role, we hypothesize that LAMPs might participate in this phenomenon in the involuting thymus. Thymic glands from cases with acute (infection induced) and chronic (senile) involution were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of LAMPs. In acute involution LAMP-1 was localized mainly in medullary epithelial cells, in single macrophages and lymphocytes. Hassall's corpuscules were stained less intensely as compared to control specimens. The quantitative analysis showed a significantly elevated LAMP-2 expression compared to LAMP-1. LAMPs were detected with very slight reactivity in the senile thymus. The enhanced expression of LAMPs, and mainly of LAMP-2, in epithelial cells of incidentally involuted thymus might be an indicator of acute cell injury requiring autophagic degradation of damaged structures. The diminished expression of LAMPs in age-involuted thymus could be a sign of the morphological reorganization and the functional disregulation of the gland. In conclusion, we present novel evidence for differential expression of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 in thymic involution suggesting their possible involvement in the process of accidental involution of the thymic gland.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Julia Münch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Martin Müller, Viktor Kellert, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Rebecca Hinz, Norbert Georg Schwarz, and Hagen Frickmann

. Heudorf U , Albert-Braun S , Hunfeld KP , Birne FU , Schulze J , Strobel K , Petscheleit K , Kempf VA , Brandt C : Multidrug-resistant organisms in refugees: prevalences and impact on infection control in hospitals

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: P. Matušinsky, M. Váňová, L. Tvarůžek, I. Polišenská, M. Janeček, and V. Smutný

. Koch , H.J. , Pringas , C. , Maerlaender , B. 2006 . Evaluation of environmental and management effects on Fusarium head blight infection and deoxynivalenol concentration in the grain of winter wheat . Eur. J. Agron. 24 : 357 – 366

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. 2011 . Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat . BMC Plant Biology 11 : 110 . Commission Regulation (EC) No 1126/2007 of 28 September 2007

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