Authors:K. Rajczyk, E. Giergiczny, and M. Glinicki
DTA method was used to follow the hydration process of cement admixtures containing fluidized bed combustion by-product, formed
on joined combustion and desulphurisation in some installations with fluidized bed. Based on endothermic peaks attributed
to the dehydration of phases formed on hydration, the conditions leading to the formation of so-called ‘delayed’ ettringite
were found. This calcium alumino-sulphate hydrate is responsible for lower durability of fluidized bed ash containing material.
DTA method is also beneficial in the studies of fluidized bed combustion by-product itself, giving information about the un-burnt
carbon content and pozzolanic properties.
Authors:D. Brandova, M. Maciejewski, and W. Keller
Thermal analysis combined with mass spectrometry was applied to radiocarbon dating procedures (age determination of carbon-containing
samples). Experiments carried out under an oxygen atmosphere were used to determine carbon content and combustion range of
soil and wood samples. Composition of the shell sample and its decomposition were investigated. The quantification of CO2 formed by the oxidation of carbon was done by the application of pulse thermal analysis. Experiments carried out under an
inert atmosphere determined the combustion range of coal with CuO as an oxygen source. To eliminate a possible source of contamination
in the radiocarbon dating procedures the adsorption of CO2 by CuO was investigated.
We have experience of two methods for the analysis of 14C in environmental samples and have used this experience to directly compare these two techniques. Nine vegetation samples and a sucrose standard were analyzed using the benzene synthesis and combustion techniques. The results obtained using both methods were in good agreement and show that 14C data obtained using either technique are comparable. The analytical requirements for the two techniques vary considerably. In choosing a technique, a variety of factors such as sensitivity, sample size, sample type, carbon content and how the results are to be expressed, need to be considered.
Two fractions of both fulvic acids (FA) and humic acid (HA) were prepared by fractionation method of Pierce and Felbeck5 involving acid hydrolysis of soil rests. This step increases recovery of both FA and HA considerably what suggest us need for slight modification of IHSS method in some cases. The weight loss, change in organic carbon content and visible spectra are figures of merit discussed. After detailed characterization these humic substances (HS) will serve as the working standards for study of interactions between organomercurials and organic part of soil.
Authors:J. Kučerík, J. Kislinger, P. Majzlík, and M. Pekař
Application of the Arrhenius equation as the temperature function in modeling of the degradation kinetics of humic substances
brought a high positive Pearson correlation coefficient with the carbon content and a reasonable negative correlation with
the oxygen content. Ratio C/H indicating the aromaticity degree of humic samples did not show any significant correlation.
Relatively high value of correlation coefficients provided also O + N and ratios C/(O + N) and C/O, respectively. In contrast,
H, N content and natural and heat generated free radical content and their ratio gave substantially lower correlation coefficients.
The latter indicates that free radicals are probably not the main reason of the collapse of the secondary structure of humic
substances leading to their degradation.
Authors:E. Arico, F. Tabuti, F. Fonseca, D. de Florio, and A. Ferlauto
The thermal behavior of the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and nickel oxide (YSZ–NiO) composite mixtures with the addition
of graphite, multiwall carbon nanotubes and functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes was studied. The YSZ–NiO composite is
the precursor of the YSZ–Ni anode of solid oxide fuel cells. The anode exhibits a porous structure, which is usually obtained
by the addition of carbon containing pore formers. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction evidenced that the properties of
carbonaceous materials (C) and atmosphere have a strong influence on the thermal evolution of the reactions taking place upon
heating the anode precursor. The dependence of both the carbon content and the chemical nature of the ceramic matrix on the
thermal behavior of the composite were investigated. The discussed results evidenced important features for optimized processing
of the anode.
The concentration of As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb,
Th, U, Yb, and Zn were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in block shale samples of the New Albany Group
(Devonian-Mississippian) in the in the Illinois Basin. Uranium content of the samples was as high as 75 ppm and interfered
in the determination of samarium, molybdenum, barium and cerium. In the determination of selenium a correction was made for
interference from tantalum. U, As, Co, Mo, Ni and Sb as well as Cu, V and pyritic sulphur which were determined by other methods,
were found to correlate positively with the organic carbon content of the samples.
A nondestructive method for carbon determination in layers of 3–10 m thickness is considered. The method is based on using the12C(d, n)13N nuclear reaction with simultaneous account of surface contamination by means of the12C(d, p)13C competitive reaction. The total cross sections for the12C(d, n)13N reaction were measured from 0.4 to 1.7 MeV. Proton beam annealing was applied with the purpose of lowering surface carbon content. The detection limit of carbon by this method is 0.5 ppm, relative standard deviation is 0.06. Disturbing effects of carbon diffusion and13N recoil backs cattering are also taken into account.
Authors:Ida Kincses, Tibor Filep, Péter Nagy, and Andrea Kovács
. — Vágó I. — Lukácsné Veres E. 2005. Relationships between the carboncontent and some microbial characteristics in the different soil types. Cereal Research Communications,
Lukácsné Veres E
Authors:Ziad Salem H. Abu-Hamatteh and Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh
Oil shale is the most abundant fossil energy resource discovered in Jordan, ranking third after the USA and Brazil in terms of oil shale reserves. This asset is considered to be Jordan's most extensive domestic fossil-fuel source. The identified reserves of this oil shale are huge and sufficient to satisfy the national energy needs for hundreds of years. Numerous geologic studies have shown that the country contains several oil shale deposits. These deposits are regarded as the richest in organic bituminous marl and limestone that occur at shallow depth. Jordanian oil shale is generally of a good quality, with relatively low ash and moisture contents, a gross calorific value of 7.5 MJ/kg, and an oil yield of 8 to 12%. The spent shale has residual carbon content that may be burned to produce further energy, and ash that can be used for cement and building materials. The current study summarizes the results of the former feasibility studies and discuses the scope of future usage of Jordanian oil shale. The value of this oil shale and its associated products is highlighted herein.