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Interdisciplinary Journal of Language Studies 1991 16 465 485 Hiiemäe , Mall 1997: The Principles of Creating Droodles in Estonia, in: Journal of the Baltic Institute of Folklore 2(1), 34–43; http

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. Kruus , Hans . 1920 . Linn ja küla Eestis (The City and the Village in Estonia). Tartu : Noor-Eesti . Lenz , Wilhelm . 1954 . Die Entwicklung Rigas zur

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. OECD Database: Statistical Compendium. Paris, various issues in electronic version. Statistical Office of Estonia ( Eesti Statistika Aastaraamat): Statistical Yearbook of Estonia . Tallinn, various issues

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István Györffy)]. In: Nagykunsági Füzetek 6 , 147–154. Karcag — Szolnok. Talve , Ilmar 1992 Ilmari Manninen in Finland and Estonia. In: Räsänen, Matti (ed.) Pioneers. The History of Finnish Ethnology. Studia Fennica

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Two population tables, which were to have accompanied my article in the pre- vious issue of Hungarian Studies (14/2 [2000], 275–284), were inadvertently omitted. They are published here as an appendix to that text. Tables 1 and 2 provide an overview of the evolution of the ethnic composition of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania since the interwar era. They indicate a notable divergence in demographic trends in Lithuania in comparison with the other two Baltic states. Despite suffering the same kinds of population losses in World War II and under Stalinism as the Estonians and Latvians, the Lithuanians displayed a strong demographic dynamism, based on higher birth rates, and maintained a re- markably stable share of the total population of their country. On the other hand, demographic growth in Estonia and Latvia had already slowed considerably by the interwar period, and the native population in those two countries was much less able to withstand the disasters of the 1940s. It is striking that in 1989 there were fewer Estonians in Estonia and Latvians in Latvia than in the 1930s. It is also noteworthy that the number of ethnic Russians in Latvia throughout the Soviet era was more than double the combined corresponding figure for Estonia and Lithua- nia, a phenomenon that reflected Riga™s attractiveness and size as the one true metropolis in the Baltic states.

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The music of Veljo Tormis (b. 1930) became well-established in Estonia during the 1960s yet remained little known in the West until the fall of Communism. By incorporating traditional Estonian folk song, regilaul, into his works, Tormis’s name became closely associated for Estonians with upholding a sense of national identity against the Soviet regime. It is his vast output of some 500 choral songs for which he is most immediately recognised; indeed, once regilaul had come to dominate the ‘Tormis style’, he dedicated himself almost exclusively to choral composition. This paper examines regilaul, its impact on Tormis during his formative years, and its integration into his mature compositional style, leading him to claim that he had ‘found his voice’ as a composer.

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Abstract  

The results obtained by studying decarbonization of different samples of Estonian limestone and dolomite and the following sulphation or carbonation of calcined products to estimate their SO2 and CO2 binding ability were presented. Experiments were carried out with thermogravimetric equipment(Q-Derivatograph, MOM and Labsys™, SETARAM) – calcination of the samples in the atmosphere of air with the heating rate 10 K per minute using multiplate crucibles, the following sulphation or carbonation of the calcined products after cooling to the fixed temperature (temperature range 400–900C) under isothermal conditions in the flow of air-SO2 or air-CO2 mixture. Chemical, X-ray, BET nitrogen dynamic desorption, etc. methods for the characterization of the initial samples, intermediate and final products were used. In addition, the possibilities of recurrent use of oil shale ashes taken from different technological points at operating thermal power plants (Estonian and Baltic TTPs, Estonia) as sorbents for SO2 binding from gaseous phase were studied, as well as the possibilities of activation of these ashes towards SO2 binding. The results of these studies confirmed the high reactivity of Estonian limestone and dolomite towards SO2 and CO2. Dependence of SO2 binding mechanism on the SO2 concentration has been established. Modelling of SO2 capture of dolomite and limestone was carried out to establish the kinetic parameters of these processes. The possibilities of activation of oil shale ashes and their effective recurrent use for binding SO2 and CO2 from gaseous phase were confirmed.

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Abstract  

The dynamics of SO2 emission during thermooxidation of Estonian oil shale, its semicoke, different samples of coal and their mixtures, as well as the influence of Estonian oil shale ash addition (for modelling the CFBC process) on the dynamics were studied. The experiments were carried out with thermogravimetric equipment under dynamic heating conditions (5 K min-1) in the atmosphere of dried air, with simultaneous gastitrimetric EGA. It was established that SO2 emission from the fuels started at 200-320C. Depending on the form of sulphur (organic, pyritic, sulphate), the emission took place in two or three steps, and continued up to 580-650C, during which 35-75% of the total sulphur was emitted into the gaseous phase. Regulating the mole ratio of free CaO/S in the mixtures of fuels with oil shale ash addition the emission of SO2 ceased abruptly at 460-540C and it was limited to the level of 7-30%.

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Abstract  

The combined thermogravimetric (TG) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used for studying the gaseous compounds evolved at thermooxidation of oil shale samples from different deposits (Estonia, Jordan, Israel). In addition to H2O and CO2as the major species, the formation and emission of CO, SO2, HCl and a number of organic species as methane, ethane, ethylene, methanol, formic acid, formaldehyde, chlorobenzene, etc. was determined. Differences in the absorbance of respective bands in FTIR spectra depending on the origin of oil shale and on the heating rate used were established.

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The La Fontaine Literature Society was founded in 1920 in Budapest. Its task was to promote the world literature in Hungary and to make Hungarian literature better known abroad.

One of the founders was Béla Vikár, who also translated the Fables of Jean La Fontaine into Hungarian. In my paper I investigate his correspondence between 1920 and 30 and the deed of foundation of the La Fontaine Society. My aim is to describe the place and the role of Finnish and Estonian literatures in the Society's work.

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