A debate has occurred recently over the issue whether it is possible to account for differences in results when using various versions of theScience Citation Index for the measurement of national performance in terms of numbers of scientific publications. This article provides an overview of the various arguments which have been made, and reports that recent reorganization in the on-line installations (SciSearch) should make it possible to circumvene one of the major sources of error.
Authors:Ch. Berthelot, G. Carraro, and V. Verdingh
An installation for photon activation analysis recently completed at CBNM, Geel, is described. Synthetic standards prepared
from pure graphite are used for the non-destructive determination of lanthanides in boron carbide. The induced activities
of153Sm,152mEu,159Gd and157Dy were measured using a single open-ended coaxial Ge(Li) detector and the photopeak areas were calculated using the GAFIT
program. For the irradiation parameters used, the limits of detection are communicated.
The text deals with the work of Jana Želibská (1941 Olomouc) — flanêuse in the 1960s and the priestess of the Great Mother (Nature) in the 1970s. Želibská took a central position among male protagonists of neo-avant-garde in Slovakia. Her approach has been labeled ‘latent feminism’ because no real feminist platform existed during socialism in Slovakia. Želibská used the language of pop art and New Realism and their iconography mixed with the local folklore motifs in a quite different way. Pop art and New Realism entered the oeuvre of many artists simultaneously with experiments in conceptual art (Stano Filko, Peter Bartoš, Július Koller, Jana Želibská). After 1968, Želibská shifted the focus of her activities to land as an open structure outside of official supervision. Želibská made several statements regarding experiencing the magic of the present moment and experience with landscape through concepts and events that emphasized connection with nature. Photography helped her to work with continuity and causality in photo-sequences of situations and events. The path through ‘rooms of her own’ and other spatial concepts from the female labyrinth to the architecture of the temple in the 1960s, through changing open structures outdoors in her concept and land art in the 1970s, photography in 1980s, reached installation and video in the 1990s. Installations in the 1980s were built mainly on the artist’s experience with and in nature, or on the typical postmodernist contrast of the urban and natural. Puberty and virginity, which interested her in the land art events in 1970s, appeared again in her video art in a monumental demonstration of ‘girl power.’ In 1997 Želibská took the position behind the camera, shooting a naked male body without identity and face in the video installation Her View of Him. Thus she completed her shift from the ‘girl power’ of the 1960s and early 1970s agenda to fully articulated ‘woman power’.
Authors:K. Rajczyk, E. Giergiczny, and M. Glinicki
DTA method was used to follow the hydration process of cement admixtures containing fluidized bed combustion by-product, formed
on joined combustion and desulphurisation in some installations with fluidized bed. Based on endothermic peaks attributed
to the dehydration of phases formed on hydration, the conditions leading to the formation of so-called ‘delayed’ ettringite
were found. This calcium alumino-sulphate hydrate is responsible for lower durability of fluidized bed ash containing material.
DTA method is also beneficial in the studies of fluidized bed combustion by-product itself, giving information about the un-burnt
carbon content and pozzolanic properties.
Authors:R. Lindstrom, R. Zeisler, E. Mackey, P. Liposky, R. Popelka-Filcoff, and R. Williams
For accurate activation analysis, it is necessary to understand the neutron and gamma-ray environment experienced by a sample
during irradiation. A new irradiation position was recently installed in the RT2 thimble of the NIST reactor. Modeling by
MCNP was used to select the radial location in the reflector thimble and the size of the D2O shielding tank. After installation, the new rabbit was characterized for thermal, epithermal, and fast fluence rates, spectral
parameters f and α, temporal stability, axial and radial flux gradients, and temperature.
Stone columns are used in practice for ground improvement of soft subsoil. Current design procedures of these columns are based on simple empirical calculations. This research project investigates the behavior of a base reinforced embankment constructed on a soft clay layer, which is improved with stone columns. Centrifuge tests were performed in order to gain a deeper understanding of the interaction problem within the structure. Stone columns were constructed in-flight using a newly developed installation tool. First analysis of test data shows a significant change in stress state due to column construction and the influence on the clay behavior.
Authors:P. Aarnio, J. Ala-Heikkilä, and T. Hakulinen
We present a framework for a multi-user server-based installation of the Shaman gamma-ray spectrum identification software. It allows users to access centrally managed Shaman and UniSampo software packages in a laboratory-wide multi-workstation environment. The server-based framework allows coordinated management
of the software packages themselves as well as analysis parameter sets and analysis results either in a file system-based
data vault or in an SQL-database based on the Linssi gamma-ray spectrometry database definition. Hierarchical management of analysis parameter sets allows full control of the
individual analysis runs yet maintaining flexibility when analyzing a variety of sample types.
Large volume Ge detectors require efficient methods of background reduction if radionuclide analyses at very low-levels are
planned. It is advisable therefore to carry out simulations of background characteristics of Ge detectors in advance of installations
of low-level Ge-spectrometers either in surface or underground laboratories. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations
of background characteristics of Ge detectors in surface laboratories with various lead shielding without and with anticosmic
shielding, as well as in underground laboratories operating at different depths.
The past quarter of a century has seen considerable improvement in time resolution for pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis experiments, made possible by advanced excitation sources. To document the present status, three installations for pulse radiolysis are discussed: a picosecond linac (Tokyo), a nanosecond Van de Graaff (Delft), and a high current accelerator (ód). Also indicated are future experimental possibilities, in particular the use of a high current photoemission electron gun. Available lasers for excitation with nanosecond pulses are summarized and a picosecond facility which permits optical and conductivity observations with subnanosecond time resolution is described.
Authors:R. Dewberry, D. Williams, R. Lee, D. Roberts, L. Arrigo, and S. Salaymeh
In this paper, the setup, calibration, and testing of the F-Area Analytical Labs active well neutron coincidence counter (HV-221000-NDA-X-1-DK-AWCC-1)
in SRNL are described for use in the Savannah River Site (SRS) transuranium metal production facility to enable assay of mixed
uranium/plutonium metal product. The instrument was required within a three-month window for availability upon receipt of
LANL uranium oxide samples into the SRS facility. Calibration of the instrument in the SRNL nuclear nondestructive assay facility
in the range 10–400 g HEU is described. We also report qualification and installation of the instrument for assay of the initial
suite of product samples.