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Let be a real irrational number and A =(xn) be a sequence of positive integers. We call A a characterizing sequence of or of the group Z mod 1 if lim n 2A n !1 k k =0 if and only if 2 Z mod 1. In the present paper we prove the existence of such characterizing sequences, also for more general subgroups of R = Z . Inthespecialcase Z mod 1 we give explicit construction of a characterizing sequence in terms of the continued fraction expansion of. Further, we also prove some results concerning the growth and gap properties of such sequences. Finally, we formulate some open problems.

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The closest of friends in the early eighteen-thirties, Berlioz and Liszt shared artistic aspirations (especially around the latter’s reworkings of the former’s Symphonie fantastique and its sequel, Le Retour à la vie) and personal adventures (especially around the former’s irrational passion for the Irish actress Harriet Smithson and the latter’s efforts at counsel and consolation). These matters are discussed in the context of Berlioz’s private (and I believe insensitive) announcement, in a letter to Liszt sent four days after the marriage, that his new wife had been a virgin.

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Abstract

The study examines some questions concerning interpretations of Slovak art in the 1960s, employing the analysis of essays by the writer Dominik Tatarka (1913–1989) on fine art. I have chosen these texts, which tie into the tradition of irrational, emphatic writing and the interpretation of artworks, because their analysis unveils the workings of the national myth on visual art. Reliving the myths linked to popular narratives marks out the cultural space of Central Europe. Put in more general terms, I will address the specific relation between modernism and anachronism, particularly between progressive humanist thinking on modern culture on the one hand and national mythology on the other hand.

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In this study I make an effort to prove that market price signals are less subject to individual behavioural distortion than those sharing the idea of prevailing irrational investor behaviour, and that intrinsic value plays a major role in the market price. With stock market bubbles, the balance between market and intrinsic value temporarily splits: during a crisis many stocks become overvalued, their prices being higher than their intrinsic value. Furthermore, among the reasons for market anomalies short-termism can be mentioned which indirectly leads to misjudgement of the underlying risk as investors pay less attention to low probability outcomes.

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The present study revolves around the question of the appropriateness of “the White Elephant syndrome” to characterise the nature of the planned trans-Baltic railway project Rail Baltica (RB) in terms of its initial financing, long-term profitability and symbolic importance. Whereas, in general, the expected outcome of the project goes well together with the EU Cohesion Policy goals, in its concrete application RB could serve as an example of the tendency of politicians and public servants to institutionally lock themselves into certain irrational choices about publicly financed mega-projects. This is what “the White Elephant syndrome” metaphor illustrates. Methodologically, this paper aims to analyse whether RB meets the common criteria of “the White Elephant syndrome” of public investments or if it can be seen as a sustainable and profitable long-term project after the initial investment.

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Summary  

Let Fn, n≧ 1, denote the sequence of generic filiform (connected, simply connected) Lie groups. Here we study, for each Fn, the infinite dimensional simple quotients of the group C*-algebra of (the most obvious) one of its discrete cocompact subgroups Dn. For Dn, the most attractive concrete faithful representations are given in terms of Anzai flows, in analogy with the representations of the discrete Heisenberg group H 3 G 3 on L 2(T) that result from the irrational rotation flows on T; the representations of Dn generate infinite-dimensional simple quotients An of the group C*-algebra C*(Dn). For n>1, there are other infinite-dimensional simple quotients of C*(Dn) arising from non-faithful representations of Dn. Flows for these are determined, and they are also characterized and represented as matrix algebras over simple affine Furstenberg transformation group C*-algebras of the lower dimensional tori.

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Buried soils are grouped into three categories, namely Holocene soils, Pleistocene ones and those of earlier geologic periods. Buried soils mainly occur on floodplains and in sandy areas in Hungary. Gradual subsidence of the lowland areas and irrationally high rate of deforestation in the catchment regions have resulted in the burial of soils with younger deposits in the floodplain areas; most of the soils buried here are black hydromorphic ones. The major cause of burial in the sandy areas, however, is repeated deposition of the shifting sand. Climatic changes and the beginning cultivation of the originally grassland and forest areas have resulted in the movement and redeposition of the sandy deposits. Most of the Pleistocene-age paleosols have come to light in loess profiles. They can be regarded as remnants of forest soils with varying humus profiles and serve as excellent stratigraphic markers in studies of loess deposits.

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The authors of this publication content analyzed downloadable, digitally manageable, archaic and folkloristic texts related to the psychic layers of eating. In the background of obesity, evolutional, cultural factors and factors of socialisation are identified that have an effect via non-apperceived, irrational and emotional functions, and make lasting weight-loss difficult. The preference of fat, salty and sweet dishes is an evolutional heritage that is unhealthy among the current living conditions. The matching of eating circumstances with calmness and love in early childhood is a social heritage. The celebration of life’s great events with excessive eating together with loved ones is a cultural heritage. Owing to such traditions, eating is not merely nutrient-intake, but a process full of significant psychic values. Food has not only nutritional but also emotional values which latter aspect determines eating today more than physiological signs. During slimming, the psychotherapeutic exploration, the apperception and correction of the emotional value of eating are important.

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Goldmark was the first of several composers to write a work based on Heinrich von Kleist’s controversial play, Penthesilea. Early critical opinion about the overture was divided. Hanslick found it distasteful, whereas others were thrilled by Goldmark’s powerful treatment of the subject. Composed in 1879, during the 1880s Penthesilea became established in orchestral repertoire throughout Europe and America. The overture represents the conflict of violence and sexual attraction between the Queen of the Amazons and Achilles. Exoticism in the play is achieved by contrasting brutal violence, irrational behaviour and extreme sensual passion. This is recreated musically by drawing on topics established in opera. Of particular note is the use of dissonance and unexpected modulations, together with extreme rhythmic and dynamic contrast. A key feature of the music is the interplay between military rhythms representing violence and conflict, and a legato, rocking theme which suggests desire and sensuality.

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Society and Economy
Authors: Attila Forgács, Enikő Bóna, Tímea Csíkos, and Helga Metercsik

Eating habits have become increasingly irrational in the last century; a variety of eating disorders have appeared. Obesity seems to be impossible to cure. Nowadays, the impact of media-marketing is the most powerful social influence on eating habits. Media has five main messages on eating and the body: 1. “Be thin!” 2. “Consume and eat!” 3. “Be afraid of food!” 4. “Food will disappear!” 5. “You are not feminine / masculine enough!” Most of these messages and directions are inconsistent with each other: e.g. “Buy and eat more, but remain thin!” The double-bind communication of media-marketing is pathogenic and schizoid. Food-related media messages are multi-layered and contradictory on many levels, so it would be more appropriate to talk about a multiple bind. The paper offers new communication strategies in order to manage the chaotic information on eating and to decrease the inconsistencies on the topic.

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