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Background and aims

Social casino games (SCGs) feature gambling themes and are typically free to download and play with optional in-game purchases. Although few players spend money, this is sufficient to make them profitable for game developers. Little is known about the profile and motivations of paying players as compared to non-paying players.

Methods

This study compared the characteristics of 521 paying and non-paying Australian social casino game players who completed an online survey.

Results

Paying players were more likely to be younger, male, speak a non-English language, and have a university education than non-payers. Paying players were more likely to be more highly involved in SCG in terms of play frequency and engagement with games and emphasized social interaction more strongly as a motivation for playing. A cluster analysis revealed distinct subgroups of paying players; these included more frequent moderate spenders who made purchases to avoid waiting for credits and to give gifts to friends as well as less frequent high spenders who made purchases to increase the entertainment value of the game.

Discussion

These findings suggest that paying players have some fundamental differences from non-paying players and high spenders are trying to maximize their enjoyment, while non-spenders are content with the game content they access.

Conclusions

Given the structural similarities between SCG and online gambling, understanding subgroups of players may have broader implications, including identifying characteristics of gamers who may also engage in gambling and players who may develop problems related to excessive online gaming.

Open access

The economics of institutions and comparative systems owes an enormous debt to János Kornai. This was well exemplified by Kornai (2014a), offering a synthetic characterization of socialism and capitalism, respectively, as shortage and surplus economies. I was very fortunate, over the last fifty years, to have had many opportunities to meet him and to talk to him, and to discuss these issues directly with him. János can be very persuasive, and over the years I have somewhat converged towards his views, but in this essay, I am going to rehearse one residual major disagreement on the shortage economy, and three reservations on capitalism as the surplus economy which, after discovering from talking to him that he was in basic sympathy with them, I have downgraded to qualifications.

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Since the first publication of Economics of Shortage in 1980, an entire economist generation has grown up, whose members are well-versed in numerous sub-themes of the economic sciences. They find their way around the most modern methodological schools, yet they know significantly less about the workings of the social systems. To the younger generations, the socialist system, whose heritage still lives with us and whose characteristic behavioural forms and attitudes have not yet disappeared at all from the economic practices of the post-socialist countries, seems like the distant past, just like the Turkish occupation or the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.The target audience of Kalligram Publishing House is this generation, to the majority of whom János Kornai’s works will probably come as a revelation. The years of crisis — whose end is still far off — has made even those uncertain about the workings of economic systems, who have personal experiences of the decades of socialism. Therefore, it would be quite important for them to re-read Kornai’s works written during the socialist era in order to be able to grasp the workings of economic systems through the help of balanced and objective analyses. Moving beyond the momentary shocks and nostalgias, the older ones also have a great need to evaluate the roles of the market and the state in a bias-free manner resting on a solid theoretical foundation, to realistically see the mechanisms of shortage and surplus economies. This way it is perhaps possible to avoid “going down the same river twice”, which disappears somewhere underground and never reaches the sea.

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. Math. (Basel) , 76 ( 2001 ), 73 – 80 . [2] Cavalcante , W. and Pellegrino , D. , Geometry of the closed unit ball of the space of bilinear forms on l2 , arXiv : 1603.01535v2 . [3] Choi , Y. S. , Ki , H. and Kim , S. G. , Extreme

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. Flege , James Emil . 1987 . The instrumental study of L2 speech production: Some methodological considerations . L anguage Learning 37 . 285 – 296 . Flege , James Emil

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photoluminescence properties of four cationic dimeric copper (I) halide complexes, formulated as [(L) 2 Cu(μ 2 -L) 2 Cu(L) 2 ] 2+ 2χ − , where X = Cl, Br and L = pyridine-2-thione (py2SH), or 4,6-dimethylpyrimidine-2-thione (dmpymtH) were studied. A further

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,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione)(4,4′-dicarboxy-2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)], cis -[Ru(L1)(L2)(NCS) 2 ] (where the ligands were L1 = 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-dione and L2 = 4,4′-dicarboxy-2,2′-bipyridyl). The decomposition mechanism was also suggested for ruthenium

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decomposition kinetics of such complexes, two series of copper (I) halide complexes formulated as [(L)CuX(μ 2 -L) 2 CuX(L)] and [(L) 2 Cu(μ 2 -L) 2 Cu(L) 2 ] 2+ 2χ − , respectively (X = Cl, Br and L = 4,6-dimethylpyrimidine-2-thione (dmpymtH)) were studied and

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-(dithiocyanato)(4,5-diazafluoren-9-one)(4,4′-dicarboxy-2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)], [Ru( L 1 )( L 2 )(NCS) 2 ] (where the ligands L 1 = 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one, L 2 = 4,4′-dicarboxy-2,2′-bipyridyl) were synthesized and characterized in our previous study [ 3

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of elemental analyses listed in Table 1 suggest that they have the composition [MCl 2 (H 2 O) 2 (L) 2 ]·yH 2 O (where y = 1 for M = Mn(II) or y = 2 for M = Cu(II), Co(II)), and y = 3 for M = Ni(II), Zn(II), and [MCl 2 (H 2 O) 2 (L) 2 ]Cl·3H 2

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