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.com.cn/GB/11502144.html (accessed 8 September 2014). China Illuminating Engineering Society (CIES), Beijing Municipal Administration Commission, Beijing Sports Bureau, Philips lighting China Co. Ltd. (2002). Shanghai landscape lighting

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Brotons, L., Mönkönnen, M., Huhta, E., Nikula, A. and Rajasärkä, A. 2003. Effects of landscape structure and forest reserve location on old-growth forest bird species in Northern Finland. Landscape Ecol . 18

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fragmentation, plant regeneration and invasion processes across edges in central Chile. In: G.A. Bradshaw and P.A. Marquet (eds.), How Landscapes Change: Human Disturbance and Ecosystem Fragmentation in the Americas . Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 145

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Abstract  

The construction of virtual science landscapes based on citation networks and the strategic use of the information therein shed new light on the issues of the evolution of the science system and possibilities for control. Citations seem to have a key position in the retrieval and valuation of information from scientific communication networks.Leydesdorff's approach to citation theory takes into account the dual-layered character of communication networks and the second-order nature of the science system. This perspective may help to sharpen the awareness of scientists and science policy makers for possible feedback loops within actions and activities in the science system, and probably nonlinear phenomena resulting therefrom. In this paper an additional link to geometrically oriented evolutionary theories is sketched and a specific landscape concept is used as a framework for some comments.

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Agnoletti, M. 2007. The degradation of traditional landscape in a mountain area of Tuscany during the 19th and 20th centuries: implications for biodiversity and sustainable management. Forest Ecol. Manag. 249

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Community Ecology
Authors: S. Popov, M. Miličić, I. Diti, O. Marko, D. Sommaggio, Z. Markov, and A. Vujić

Spatial and temporal differences in landscape patterns are of considerable interest for understanding ecological processes. In this study, we assessed habitat quality by using the Syrph The Net database and data on decreasing species richness over a 25-year period for the two largest phytophagous hoverfly genera (Merodon and Cheilosia). Furthermore, within this time frame, we explored congruence between ecological responses (species richness and Biodiversity Maintenance Function for these two genera) and landscape structural changes through correlation analysis. Our results indicate that landscapes have experienced changes in aggregation, isolation/connectivity and landscape diversity, with these parameters being significantly correlated with Cheilosia species richness loss and habitat quality. We conclude that the genus Cheilosia is a good bioindicator that can highlight not only the current quality of an area but also temporal changes in landscape patterns.

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The southwest border of Roman Dacia was at the same time a sector of the external frontier of the Roman Empire. A research project of a team from the Chair for Ancient History and Archaeology of the Babeş-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca took as goal a survey with new methods of the Roman forts, roads and the landscape on this frontier sector. The GPS coordinates and the characteristics of the landscape for each fort have been recorded. The results are presented in a text and in several detailed maps.

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Boltižiar M 2007: Structure of alpine landscape of Tatry Mts. — Large-scale mapping, analysis and change evaluation by means of Remote Sensing approach (in Slovakian). UKF v Nitre, ILE SAS Nitra

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Abstract

This paper reconstructs Ruskin’s work from the perspective of the landscape, building upon the assumption that Modern Painters played a cardinal role in the emancipation of the genre. This reconstruction is complicated by the internal contradictions within the work: it cannot be regarded as a systematic work of philosophy, but belongs rather to the genre of sage writing. In volume I, Ruskin approached the landscape not from an aesthetic point of view, but from the direction of scientific truth. The aesthetic consequence of this was his anti-mimetic attitude, which differentiated between the imitation of nature and the uncovering of the truths of nature, and in this respect, he considered Turner the greatest master who had ever lived. Truth takes precedence over all aesthetic considerations, and for this reason Ruskin was resolutely against artistic tradition. Seen from his perspective, the history of landscape painting appeared as a series of scientific illustrations, which, with the forward march of science, came ever closer to truth-to-nature. The other two essential conditions of art, the other side of truth, were its moral and religious messages. Beauty is the work of God, and God must be praised in His work, in Nature. Only later did Ruskin introduce a historical dimension to the experience of the landscape. The modern era is characterised by the rise of the pre-eminent interest in the landscape, accompanied by a parallel decreasing interest in gods, saints, ancestors and humans. This later became the main motif of Ruskin’s activities as a social critic and reformer. In relation to the loss of faith and the prospect of regaining it, Ruskin saw landscape painting as the representative art of the modern era. In the later volumes of Modern Painters, Ruskin carefully distinguished between the task of science, which is to investigate the essence and uncover the truths of material nature, and the task of art, which is to explore the possible viewpoints or aspects of material nature. In volume V of Modern Painters he firmly asserted – in diametric contradiction to his earlier views – that the greatness and truth of Turner did not rest on scientific truth, for in this respect the artist was completely ignorant. This paper interprets and evaluates Ruskin’s extraordinarily harsh criticism of Claude Lorrain, which contrasts with the fact that Turner spent almost his entire life idolising and attempting to rival Claude.

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of the Current Financial and Economic Crisis on the Rural Landscape as well as the Agri-food Sector in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). In: IMAO 2010 . Halle: IMAO, pp. 13–27. Csáki C

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