Formulas for the precision and accuracy of137Cs measurements and of the consumer's and producer's risks in routine control are given. The limit of determination is determined by the combination of natural background, compton continuum of the sample aliquot, counting efficiency and the residual uncertainty in positioning.
A series of dolomite bore hole samples have been analyzed for their iron content using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence. A precision of ±0.1%, as specified for oil and gas exploration, has been met using a non-destructive sample preparation technique, energy dispersive detector,109Cd source and a micro-computer based data acquisition and reduction system. Sample and standard preparation procedures are discussed.
Adiabatic calorimetry is a suitable method for investigations of reactions because the generated heat remains completely in
the reactor. For the investigation of organic reactions, the adiabatic precision calorimeter ACTRON 5 is used. The alcoholyses
of phenyl isocyanate and 1,2-butyleneoxide were investigated. The temperature-time course was estimated by means of the nonlinear
program TA-kin. Inclusion of the concentration-time course in the estimation procedure led to an increase in the reliability
of the parameters. Probes were taken during isoperibolic measurements and were analysed by means of HPLC.
Repeated irradiation enhances the precision and sensitivity of INAA based on short-live radionuclides, but entail systematic losses due to dead time. The relative standard deviation in the net peak area decreases with the square root of the number of cycles while the systematic bias increases with it. The limits of decision, detection and determination decrease in a somewhat more complicated way with the number of cycles. The derived formulation is applied to the determination of selenium in hair by the 161.9 keV photopeak of77mSe,T1/2=17.8 s.
Authors:S. Ali, I. Hau, T. Niedermayr, and S. Friedrich
Superconducting gamma-ray detectors offer an order of magnitude higher energy resolution than conventional high-purity germanium
detectors. This can significantly increase the precision of non-destructive isotope analysis for nuclear samples where line
overlap affects the errors of the measurement. We have developed gamma-detectors based on superconducting molybdenum-copper
sensors and bulk tin absorbers for nuclear science and national security applications. They have, depending on design, an
energy resolution between ∼50 and ∼150 eV FWHM at ∼100 keV. Here, we apply this detector technology to the measurement of
uranium isotope ratios, and discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and quantum efficiency involved in detector design.
In this paper, a systematic analysis of the errors involved in the determination of the kinetic parameters (including the
activation energy and frequency factor) from five integral methods has been carried out. The integral methods analyzed here
are Coats-Redfern, Gorbachev, Wanjun-Yuwen-Hen-Zhiyong-Cunxin, Junmeng-Fusheng-Weiming-Fang, Junmeng-Fang and Junmeng-Fang-Weiming-Fusheng
method. The results have shown that the precision of the kinetic parameters calculated by the different integral methods is
dependent on u (E/RT), that is, on the activation energy and the average temperature of the process.
Authors:J. Yellin, I. Perlman, W. Gentner, and O. Müller
Thorium, uranium and potassium mean abundances for 15 Ivory Coast tektites, 23 Australites, 10 Philippinites, 25 Thailandites,
16 Bediasites and 12 Moldavites are reported. Abundances are also reported for Muong Nong type tektites, Nordlinger Ries crater
glass, Bosumtwi crater glass and Darwin crater glass. Previous measurements are reviewed. The value of the present work lies
in the fact that high precision instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to measure a large number of tektites
encompassing the major strewn fields. Four independent measurements of thorium were made for each specimen with two Ge(Li)
gamma spectrometers. Two of the measurements were based on the 312 keV gamma of233Pa, while the other two measurements were based on the uranium
X-rays which accompany the decay of233Pa. Internal consistency among the four thorium measurements is high. The uranium measurements were based on the 106 keV gamma
of239Np, while potassium was measured from the 1524 keV gamma of42K.
We describe a fully automated adiabatic calorimeter designed for high-precision covering the temperature range 15 to 300 K.
Initial measurements were performed on synthetic sapphire (20 g). The statistical error of the apparatus estimated from the
scattering of theCp data of sapphire is about 0.1% and the average absolute error of specific heat between 100 and 300 K was 0.7% compared to
values given in the literature. The heat capacity and the three phase transitions of cyclopentane (C5H10) which is recommended as a standard for the temperature calibration of scanning calorimeters have also been measured. The
transition temperatures were determined to be (literature values in parentheses): 122.23 K (122.39 K) 138.35 K (138.07 K)
and 178.59 K (179.69 K), with an experimental error of ±40 mK.
Fuzzy inference approach was applied to select the control input for the precision water bath of the heat exchange calorimeter used at a non-air-conditioned laboratory. The thermal fluctuation of the bath water was necessary to be kept within a narrow range. The cooling water or coolant kept at a temperature lower than the set temperature was circulated in the bath. The deviation corresponding to the difference between the set temperature and the observed temperature was observed as the input signal. The output or control input to be given to the heather element in the water bath was calculated by the fuzzy modus. The output function was simplified by means of circulating the cooling water. The contribution of each membership function was changed according to the thermal progress of the observed temperature of the water. The whole system including the control programs was examined by a practical water bath, and fairly good results were obtained. Reasonable recoveries were also shown for external thermal disturbances given to the controlled system.