It has long been recognized that the contribution of bracing, cladding may be included in the design of steel frameworks. On the other hand, — due to the very sophisticated interaction between frames and bracing, cladding — the theoretical solutions need experimental, numerical verification.The Laboratory of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Budapest in 1976–81 carried out theoretical and experimental investigations on full-scale simple elastic-plastic frames. Our goal is to help the design and refurbishment of structures by comparing the experimental results to the results of the virtual structure, modeled by a finite element software.This time we focus on a horizontally displaced building section consisting of three frames, that was retracted with the use of the cross bracing of the end-frame. Some problems of modeling will be presented.
Increasing the stiffness of some frames of a structure and making the frames work together by using diaphragms is an alternative way of strengthening steel frameworks. The diaphragm effect of the cladding is well known, but due to the very sophisticated interaction among frames and the cladding, the theoretical solutions need experimental verification.The Laboratory of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Budapest carried out experimental investigations on full-scale simple elastic-plastic frames in 1976. As a part of it, the effect of cladding was studied. The goal of this paper is to compare the experimental results to the results calculated according to the stressed skin diaphragm design method. As the examined structural layouts were different, virtual structures were used to make the results comparable.
Authors:L. Körmendy, E. Zukál, I. Csapó, and N. Török
The aim of this study was a survey of relationships used for calculating ‘meat content’ with respect to the QUID regulation (Commission Directive
, 2001). The recommended equations are presented in a concise form. The advantages of a possible introduction of the meat equivalent concept are also treated [assessment of lean content of the meat ingredient(s)]. A non-negligible condition for applying the QUID equations is, in principle, the equality of the fat-free protein concentrations of the various tissue types in the raw meat materials. This needs an adjustment of the protein concentrations of the recipes to a reference value (PFFref), which can be achieved by effective or virtual addition of water to the formulation or ‘removal’ of water from it. The influence of moisture loss during meat processing on QUID is also discussed. The results of various calculation methods are presented with examples.
model of the overhead crane an incremental form of the principle of the virtual displacements with updated Lagrangian formulation  is used: (1) ∫ V t p t u ¨ t + Δ t δ u d V t + M u ¨ M t + Δt δ u M + ∫ V t E e 11 t δ e 11 d V t + ∫ V t
Authors:Robert Klinc, Žiga Turk, and Matevž Dolenc
Kraut R., Gergle D., Fussell S. The use of visual information in shared visual spaces: Informing the development of virtual co-presence,
Proceedings Computer-supported Collaborative Work
, New Orleans, LA. New York, ACM Press, 2002, pp. 31
develop the geometric stiffness matrix (5) from the displacement approximation based on the interpolation functions and the principles of the virtual displacement [ 10 ]. The second term of the internal virtual work, which contains the nonlinear increment