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Journal of Flow Chemistry
Authors: Brecht Egle, Juan Muñoz, Nerea Alonso, Wim De Borggraeve, Antonio de la Hoz, Angel Díaz-Ortiz, and Jesús Alcázar

The first example of an alkyl–aryl Negishi coupling in a practical, sustainable, and high-yielding process using a silica-supported catalyst in flow is described. Excellent conversions and good functional group compatibility were obtained under very mild conditions. Functionalized alkyl groups were also introduced to provide access to synthetically useful molecules and to demonstrate the versatility of the method. The scalability was assessed, and a throughput of 7.5 mmol/h of processed substrate was achieved. All crude products were free from phosphine derivatives and ready for use in subsequent reaction steps.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Anabel Cruz-Romero, Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Dora Romero-Salas, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, Sokani Sánchez-Montes, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, and Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of Leptospira IgG antibodies in backyard pigs in the northern Mexican state of Durango. We performed a cross-sectional study of 305 backyard pigs. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were detected using microscopic agglutination assay (MAT) with a panel of 12 Leptospira antigens.

Results: Overall, antibodies against Leptospira (any of the 12 Leptospira serovars examined) were found in 186 (61.0%) of the 305 pigs studied. Seropositive pigs were found on 80 (70.2%) of the 114 properties surveyed. The predominant serovar was Leptospira interrogans Pomona (n = 55); followed by Leptospira noguchii Lousiana and Leptospira santarosai Tarassovi (n = 53 each); L. interrogans Bataviae (n = 47); Leptospira biflexa Semaranga and L. interrogans Hebdomadis (n = 36 each); L. interrogans Pyrogenes (n = 30); L. interrogans Djasiman (n = 20); Leptospira borgpetersenii Ballum (n = 11); L. noguchii Panama and L. interrogans Canicola (n = 5 each); and L. borgpetersenii Mini (n = 2). Logistic regression showed that seropositivity was associated with low (<1000 m above sea level) altitude (odds ratio [OR] = 3.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01–5.20; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: This is the first report of Leptospira exposure in backyard pigs in Mexico and of an association between Leptospira exposure in pigs and altitude. Backyard pigs represent a high-risk group for Leptospira exposure.

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Journal of Flow Chemistry
Authors: Nerea Alonso, M. Muñoz Juan de, Brecht Egle, Johannes L. Vrijdag, Wim M. De Borggraeve, Antonio de la Hoz, Angel Díaz-Ortiz, and Jesús Alcázar

Abstract

The first continuous flow carbonylation reaction using aryl formates as CO precursor is reported. The reaction is practical, scalable and high yielding. The use of a flow protocol safely allows expanding the scope to activated chlorides, nitrogen heterocycles and to the selective introduction of an ester group in dihalo-derivatives. Further selective reduction of the ester formed to an aldehyde in flow is also described.

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Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Clare Wilkins, Rafael G. dos Santos, Jordi Solá, Marc Aixalá, Pep Cura, Estefanía Moreno, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, Jaime E. C. Hallak, and José Carlos Bouso

Background and aims

Ibogaine is a natural alkaloid that has been used in the last decades as an adjuvant for the treatment of opiate withdrawal. Despite the beneficial results suggested by animal studies and case series, there is a lack of clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of ibogaine. Moreover, the majority of reports described cases of heroin-dependent individuals, with and without concomitant use of methadone, using high doses of ibogaine. Therefore, it is not clear if ibogaine at low doses could be used therapeutically in people on methadone maintenance treatments (MMT).

Methods

Case report of a female on MMT for 17 years who performed a self-treatment with several low and cumulative doses of ibogaine over a 6-week period.

Results

The patient successfully eliminated her withdrawals from methadone with ibogaine. Each administration of ibogaine attenuated the withdrawal symptoms for several hours, and reduced the tolerance to methadone until all signs of withdrawal symptoms disappeared at the end of the treatment. No serious adverse effects were observed, and at no point did the QTc measures reach clinically significant scores. Twelve months after the treatment, she was no longer on MMT.

Conclusions

To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing an ibogaine treatment using low and cumulative doses in a person on MMT. Although preliminary, this case suggests that low and cumulative doses of ibogaine may reduce withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing MMT.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Maria Pinto, José Luis Alonso Berrocal, José Antonio Cordón García, Viviana Fernández Marcial, Carlos García Figuerola, Javier García Marco, Camarero Carmen Gómez, and Rodríguez Ángel F. Zazo

Summary This work has analyzed and evaluated the dissemination of research done at Spanish universities through the World Wide Web (WWW) in order to obtain a map of the visibility of the information available on this research and to propose measures for improving the quality of this diffusion, all within the social and institutional context of the European Area for Higher Education. The methodology applied in the study has used both qualitative and quantitative research methods to obtain some quality indicators on the dissemination of university research. The object of study consists of a sample of 19 Spanish universities, chosen according to their representativeness by Autonomous Community and their administrative and scientific weight. The process of defining indicators, both qualitative and quantitative, as well as the collection and analysis of data, are explained. The results give us a detailed panorama of the state of the art of the visibility of information on research in the web pages of selected universities. This has allowed us to make certain proposals for improvement that can contribute to the excellence of its dissemination.

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. Ilyen például a velencei San Marco keresztelőkápolnájának mozaikja és a riofreddói SS. Annunziata oratóriumának freskója (vö.: Joan Barclay Lloyd: The Trinity amid the Hierarchies of Angels: A lost fresco from S. Clemente in Rome and iconographic

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In this paper, the authors present the linguistic image of angel in Polish and Hungarian phraseological units. The analysis of the material shows that the cognitive basis of this concept is made up of several domains and conceptualizations. In both languages, the image of angel is in most cases similar to and corresponds with the human behaviour but in some cases evidently differs, too.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Edna Madai Méndez-Hernández, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, José Manuel Salas-Pacheco, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Ada Agustina Sandoval-Carrillo, Francisco Xavier Castellanos-Juárez, Luis Ángel Ruano-Calderón, and Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

Abstract

The link between Toxoplasma gondii infection and multiple sclerosis remains controversial. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between T. gondii seropositivity and multiple sclerosis. Using an age- and gender-matched case-control study, we studied 45 patients who had multiple sclerosis attended in two public hospitals and 225 control subjects without this disease and other neurological disorders in Durango City, Mexico. Serum samples of cases and controls were analyzed for detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. One (2.22%) of the 45 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 15 (6.67%) of the 225 control subjects without this disease were seropositive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. No statistically significant difference (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.04–2.47; P = 0.48) in seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies between cases and controls was found. The frequency of T. gondii seropositivity did not vary among cases and controls about sex or age groups. Results of this study do not support an association between seropositivity to T. gondii and multiple sclerosis. However, additional research with larger sample sizes to confirm this lack of association should be conducted.

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Abstract

On the architrave of the altar shrine of the Saints John altarpiece in the St James church in Lőcse (Levoca) there are angel heads; the paper is trying to find their source. The motif was most frequently used in the Quattrocento. The most effective disseminator of the fashion of nude and often wingless youngster and children was Donatello in Italy. Angels without distinct functions had the role to indicate heaven which is why they are usually on the upper part of the altarpiece and later of the tabernacle. When they appear in sepulchral monuments, they refer to the hoped-for celestial dwelling of the deceased. A variant, or abridgment as it were, of the infant angel, the winged angel head already appeared in the 14th century. The popularizer of children angels Donatello also created winged angel heads which spread wide in Italy after his works.

The motif arrived in Hungary from Florence. One of its first specimens was probably the white marble tabernacle, an import from Florence, in the chapel of King Matthias Corvinus's Visergrád palace, where the angel's heads were hovering on the archivolts. After that, in the Jagellonian age, they often appeared in different areas of the Hungarian Kingdom (Nyitra, Pest, Pécs, etc.). In a secular context they first emerged in the Buda palace in carved architectonic elements, and after 1490 series of angel heads frequently appeared on all'antica buildings as well all over the country.

It is not only from here but from German areas north of the Alps, where this motif had been mediated by Dürer, that they made their way to the St John altarpiece in Lőcse. Undoubtedly, Hungary had a special role in disseminating the humanism of Italian origin in her broader environment, but connections with areas north of the Alps must not be ignored either. Warnings have come from several experts recently – and with good reason – that the importance of the northern renaissance has been neglected in Hungarian research in order to throw the developments in the Matthias age into deeper relief.

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angels and celestial beings; and demons and other entities of death. These predominantly anthropomorphic figures are mirrored in Luke’s ( 2011 ) summary of various studies on dimethyltryptamine (DMT) entity experiences that reported entities

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