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into the guardian of the gates of hell, and in the youngest layer of folklore, his appearance and behaviour are described as similar to those of the German land-owning classes. Typical features of the Devil are horns, tail, animal leg, and glowing red

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. Berthelot Katell: Philo and Kindness towards Animals ( De virtutibus 125–147). The Studia Philonica Annual 14 (2002) 48–65. Berthelot Katell: Philanthropia judaica: le débat autour de la ‘misanthropie’ des lois juives

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viaskodó táltosbika és a sámán állatalakú életlelke [The Battling Táltos Bull and the Shaman's Animal-Shaped Life Soul]. Ethnographia LXIII : 308 - 355 . Diószegi , Vilmos 1953 Adatok a táltos révülésére [Data on the Trance of the Táltos

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This paper explores the ways of displaying anger in the Russian linguistic image of the world. According to the National Corpus of the Russian Language, anger dims eyes, makes blind and mad. In metaphorical projections, anger is defined in relation to the structural elements of other subject areas, including fluid, wild animals, natural disasters, fire, lightning, or thunderstorm. By analogy with some resources, anger is collected, wasted, and exhausted; by analogy with water, anger overflows and boils; by analogy with fire, inflames, and fades, anger can flare up and fade; by analogy with wild animals, it can be curbed, tamed, or subdue. It is quite common that speakers do not pay attention to metaphorical expressions but take them almost for the objective characteristic of anger.

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Khanty culture in its present state — in the process of language loss and acculturation — still offers a wide field for the examination of notions related to everyday and sacral purity and their embodiment. Earlier research has explored certain details of these notions (e.g., regulations related to animals of mythological role, nutrition taboos and linguistic restrictions), it seems, however, that the concept of purity is more complex than that: it is a fundamental system which plays a central role, encompassing the whole of the traditional Khanty world, which ultimately defines the order of the world. This fact about the Khanty culture has practically not yet been articulated. The present research aims to explore the intersections of notions of purity and order in Khanty culture and to analyze the individual sub-fields.

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In spite of the promising recent development of comparative musicology (also including the study of musical instruments) and of semiotics (also including musical semiotics), there is no summarizing attempt to describe and analyze the “signs on musical instruments” phenomena, i.e. carved or painted parts of the instruments. The zoomorphic and anthropomorphic construction and forms of musical instruments, and of their parts, is a wide-ranging field of study. The paper shows some examples of ancient and folk music instruments, by using the common (Peircian) terminology in describing their signs in the proper sense of the word. Animal shells used as bodies of instruments, snake- and dragon-formed instruments, amorous heads on string instruments, human heads and devilish forms of bagpipes, paintings on piano’s wooden cases, emblems or coats of arms of the builders of the instruments — just there are some cases of signs of musical instruments. There are further allusions to musical signs as well.

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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors: Azam Khodashenas Nikoo, Padmashekar, and Abdoullah Namdar

Many reasons can be offered for the employment of non-violence, it breaks the cycle of violence and counter-violence, and also it is the surest way of achieving public sympathy. It is the only method of struggle that is consistent with the teachings of the major religions. Non-violence can also be the basis for a way of life. It is consistent with a belief in the underlying unity of humankind. Truth and non-violence are not possible without a living belief in God. It is a fact that non-violent activism is more powerful and effective than violent activism. By the very law of nature all bad things are associated with violence, while all good things are associated with non-violence. Violent activities breed hatred in society, while non-violent activities elicit love. Violence is the way of destruction while non-violence is the way of construction. The program of Islam is divided to bring peace into three main phases: 1) peace with God, 2) peace within the community, and 3) peace with others. In the Qur’an peace is one of God’s names and the word sabr exactly expresses the notion of non-violence, as it is understood in modern times. Religion emphasizes that peace of mind comes from tolerance and contentment. In Jainism, non-violence is not limited to refraining from mental, verbal and physical injury to human beings. It encompasses abstaining from injury to all living beings – all animals and plants.

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Most Hungarian cartoons were meant for the whole family rather than just children. Due to this fact, everyone could enjoy the stories, the little ones loved the animal characters, which were often in the center, and the adults could laugh at the ironic and caricaturistic situations and representations. In my research I analyze the hidden meanings of a classic Hungarian cartoon entitled Cat City, brought up through intertextuality, allegory, irony and other rhetorical devices that might communicate an underlying meaning. I also examine the kinds of television tropes and archetypical characters that are likely to appear in the cartoon. The cartoon’s main situation is the fight between cats and mice, and it is a parody of several famous feature films, focusing mainly on the James Bond series. The main plot is about a special spy who is sent to the city of “Pokyo” to get the secret plan for a machine which could save the mouse civilization. These underlying meanings greatly added to the Hungarian cartoon’s popularity, which sometimes represented the symbols and even flaws of the communist system.

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This paper examines the iconolographical origin of Johannes Sambucus’ emblem dedicated to Carlo Sigonio, which – according to its title – displays the difference between grammar, dialectics, rhetoric and history. I focus on the central female figure whose innocent nudity represents the truth and whose connection with the ideal historiography standing – balancing together with Dialectics and Rhetoric – on the head of the young virgin Grammar. The special relationship between History and naked truth also defines its symbolic connection with the costumes of the other two figures: Dialectics in rough working clothes and Rhetoric in her long luxury dress. Three symbolic animals also belong to the three female figures: a sphinx to Dialectics, a chimera to Rhetoric and a winged dog to History. Contextual examination of the emblem reveals the possible source of the strange winged dog symbol is Plutarch’s short story of Osiris and Isis. In addition, the paper draws attention to an ironic twist of History in connection with Carlo Sigonio that shows that its nudity is not always so innocent.

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Res ardua vetustis novitatem dare

A leo generosus és idősebb Plinius zoológiája

Antik Tanulmányok
Author: Ágnes Darab

A tanulmány egyetlen szöveg elemzéséből indul ki: idősebb Plinius Naturalis historiájának leírásából az oroszlánról (8, 41–58). Az elemzés ezt a 17 fejezetnyi narratív egységet elhelyezi az enciklopédia zoológiai tárgyú könyveinek, majd a 8. könyvnek a struktúrájában, megállapítja és értelmezi a leírás narratív sajátosságait. Mindezt tágabb összefüggésbe helyezve összeveti a téma legfontosabb előzményével, Aristotelés leírásaival az oroszlánról, illetve kitekint a legfontosabb recepciójára, Ailianos oroszlán-narratíváira. Az irodalmi kontextus mellett fontos szempont a filozófiai háttér: az ember és a természet többi élőlényének viszonyáról kialakított, alapvetően a sztoikus filozófiában gyökerező, a racionalitás-irracionalitás oppozíciójára épített álláspont. Mindennek ismeretében történik meg Plinius oroszlán-narratívájának, valamint az elemzésbe bevont analógiák alapján zoológiájának elhelyezése az antik zoológiai irodalom palettáján.

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