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The effect of a pure endoxylanase (Xyn2) and endoglucanase (EgII) from Trichoderma reesei on bread flour quality were compared to a commercial endoxylanase from Aspergillus niger (Com-xyl) and a cellulase-xylanase cocktail from T. reesei (Cel-xyl). Effects of these enzymes on dough quality, bread weight, height and crumb softness were analysed. Results obtained during commercial-scale baking tests often differed from those obtained during laboratory-scale tests; indicating that results from laboratory-scale baking tests cannot be extrapolated to commercialscale bread production. Low levels of endoxylanase activity benefited bread height and volume without affecting slice brightness in commercial-scale tests. The addition of endoglucanases and α-amylases can also be advantageous resulting in less endoxylanase activity required to obtain similar results.

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Spatially synoptic multivariate image data implicitly embody information on landscape pattern, for which analytical techniques of explicit pattern extraction are evolving. In parallel, a multiplicity of 'environmental indicators' is being generated in the arena of geographic information systems. Landscape ecological analysis offers substantial opportunity for configuring these indicators synoptically as cells over spatial extents and for stacking them into complementary sets of image-structured multiple environmental indicators whereby the values of the indicators become intensity analogs of brightness for spectral bands. As environmental signal analogs of multiband images, these data become available to image portrayal in both graytone and quasi-color renditions to reveal joint properties of pattern for visual interpretation. Likewise, many of the conventional image analysis operations can be conceived more broadly to allow their application in the indicator context. This includes combinatorial approaches such as calculation of an NDVI equivalent from indicator intensities. Similarly, supervised and unsupervised analyses can have meaningful application in the context of multiple environmental indicators. Furthermore, newer techniques of pattern-based image segmentation can also be applied. Application to habitat modeling for vertebrates from Gap Analysis shows the effectiveness of the approach.

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Investigation of the complex thermal behavior of fats

Combined DSC and X-ray diffraction techniques

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Keller, F. Lavigne, C. Loisel, M. Ollivon, and C. Bourgaux

The thermal behavior of three ural fats (displaying very different composition), cocoa butter (CB)2, lard, and a stearin obtained from anhydrous milk-fat (AMF) fractionation, were studied by both DSC and X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature (XRDT). To perform temperature explorations between −30‡C and +80‡C, at rates identical to those used for DSC and ranging from 0.1 K min−1 to 10 K min−1, a new set of X-ray sample-holders, temperature-controlled by Peltier effect, has been developed. It is shown that the three more stable polymorphic forms of CB were easily characterized by either X-ray diffraction or DSC, and existence of two Β-3L forms was confirmed. On the contrary, the more complex polymorphism of lard and AMF required combined examination by DSC and XRDT and the brightness of the synchrotron source for studies at the highest heating rates. Quantitative analysis of the long spacings of XRDT recordings is invaluable for interpretation of thermal events. For instance, it was found that the simultaneous formation of two polymorphic forms, of apparent long spacing of 34 and 42 å, at the onset of lard crystallization might explain the difficulty of its fractionation.

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Synthesis of the green spinel pigment Co0.46Zn0.55(Ti0.064Cr0.91)2O4 by a novel two-step method of preparation have been investigated. Inorganic pigments are almost always prepared by a solid state reaction. It is classical ceramic method which used oxides, hydroxides or carbonates as precursors. The reaction is performed at temperature higher than 1300C and an agent of mineralization is usually present. The presented novel method of preparation decreases the calcining temperature necessary for reaching of bright and clear hue of the pigments prepared. Main attention was focused on the influence of two types of titanium raw materials on the temperature region of the spinel structure formation and on the colour properties of the pigments. The mixture of precursors with TiO2 gives a one-phase system when calcining at 1100C but the colour properties are more interesting at 1150C. Thermal stability of this pigment is limited by temperature 1300C. This temperature is connected with partial oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI). Thermal analysis provided the first information about the temperature region of the pigment formation and determined the thermal stability of pigment.

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Resolution and Discovery
Authors: Martial Duchamp, Vadim Migunov, Amir H. Tavabi, Adnan Mehonic, Mark Buckwell, Manveer Munde, Anthony J. Kenyon, and Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski

Silicon oxide-based resistive switching devices show great potential for applications in nonvolatile random access memories. We expose a device to voltages above hard breakdown and show that hard oxide breakdown results in mixing of the SiOx layer and the TiN lower contact layers. We switch a similar device at sub-breakdown fields in situ in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) using a movable probe and study the diffusion mechanism that leads to resistance switching. By recording bright-field (BF) TEM movies while switching the device, we observe the creation of a filament that is correlated with a change in conductivity of the SiOx layer. We also examine a device prepared on a microfabricated chip and show that variations in electrostatic potential in the SiOx layer can be recorded using off-axis electron holography as the sample is switched in situ in the TEM. Taken together, the visualization of compositional changes in ex situ stressed samples and the simultaneous observation of BF TEM contrast variations, a conductivity increase, and a potential drop across the dielectric layer in in situ switched devices allow us to conclude that nucleation of the electroforming—switching process starts at the interface between the SiOx layer and the lower contact.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Zs. Albert, Zs. Erős-Honti, G. Solymossy, L. Kuznyák, A. Miskó, Cs. Deák, M. Ladányi, I. Terbe, and I. Papp

In this study two widely consumed Hungarian bell pepper cultivars ‘Hó’ and ‘Kárpia’, were examined. Aims of the investigations were to describe the postharvest behaviour of the cultivars and assign associated traits to the largely different shelf-life that is well known for these cultivars. ‘Hó’ is a white fruit flesh cultivar with average postharvest storability, while ‘Kárpia’ is of Capia type, with extended shelf-life. Postharvest water loss rates were measured, and differences between the cultivars were found. Interestingly, however, the longer shelf-life ‘Kárpia’ fruits showed higher water loss rate. Bright field microscopy was used to study the tissue structure of the outer pericarp of pepper fruits to find explanation for the good storability of ‘Kárpia’. Significantly more cell layers of the hypodermal collenchyma were found in ‘Kárpia’, than in ‘Hó’. Thicker cell walls were also found in this tissue but also in the epidermis. Fluorescent imaging confirmed these observations and also supported differences in the cuticular thickness between the cultivars. Our results highlight epidermal and hypodermal tissue structures as potential factors to influence the shelf-life of bell pepper fruits.

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In India recent evidences showed that phytoplasma associated with plants including crops, fruits, trees, ornamental, sugarcane, grasses and weeds increasing at alarming rate. Phytoplasma cause diseases in several plant species and resulted in serious threat as a source of alternative natural host for the spread of phytoplasma pathogen to other economically important plants and thereby chances of causing severe losses. In earlier days very few phytoplasma diseases were identified in India merely on the basis of bright-field, fluorescence, electron microscope observations, tetracycline treatment and to a lesser extent by serological assays. Among these, microscopic methods do not attain pathogen identification, and all of them are not always sufficiently sensitive to detect phytoplasma infections in low-titer hosts. Today detection of phytoplasma based on molecular genetic methods including PCR assays are efficiently carried out in India and on that basis several plant species are reported to have phytoplasma infections. So far more than 37 plant species have been reported to be associated with phytoplasma infections from all over India. The “Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris”, “Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia”, “Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii” and “Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis” belong to 16SrI, 16SrII, 16SrVI and 16SrXIV group of phytoplasmas are the major groups associated with different species reported to be infected with phytoplasma throughout India. In this paper, we have discussed overall progress on phytoplasma disease on plant species in India in terms of taxonomy, symptomatology, economic significance, transmission and characterization.

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The aim of the presented study was to prepare the phosphate sorption isotherms of 20 European volcanic soil profiles and some other Hungarian and German volcanic soils (n = 114) used in the experiment and to establish the soil characteristics determining the phosphate sorption capacity of these soils. The Langmuir isotherm well describes the phosphate sorption of European volcanic soils at bright concentration interval 0–600 mg·dm -3 P. The calculated phosphate adsorption maximum (P max ) is an excellent soil property for characterizing the surface activity of soils developed on volcanic parent material. The calculated phosphate sorption maxima of soils included in the experiment ranged from 0 to 10.000 mg P·kg -1 . Some of the volcanic soils sorbed a high ratio of the added phosphate at low concentrations, while others sorbed somewhat less. The difference in the phosphate binding affinity of soils caused the differences in the shape of the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. P retention % is a WRB diagnostic requirement of andic soil horizon. It was supposed that the phosphate sorption maximum (P max ) gives a better characterization of the surface reactivity of volcanic soils. As it was predicted, oxalate soluble Al is the most important soil property, which dominantly (in 73%) explained the phosphate sorption ability of European volcanic soils.

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Analysis of Kurtágs's compositional techniques centred on ways of generating and developing musical figures, whose immediate perceptibility can be set in a contemporary aestethics of expression. Figures are shaped from basic and elementary cells (mostly second- or third- intervallic cells), a matter still chaotic and formless, which through subsequent harmonic fillings and widenings become little by little animated; this process of musical generation alludes to those of spontaneous generation and transformation of the natural world. Kurtág's formal structures are conceived as brief, almost aphoristic ones, fashioned by the inner characters of figures; their leaps are mainly constituted by ratios of “golden section”, that is nature's inner geometry. Strong, bright- coloured gestures are the musical culmination of these “figural” and living developments. Exemplifications of some figures' articulation, as well as of their generation and development processes from elementary cells follow, through selected passages from op. 7, 17, 24, 27. This charming spectacle of nature in Kurtág's music is further innervated by a deep sense of history: Bach's polyphony, the italian Baroque aria, Beethoven's instrumental recitative, Bartók's harmony, the dodecaphonic techniques, as tutelary deity of such a personal expressive world.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: K. Gopal, E. Pradeepthi, V. Gopi, S. Khayum Ahammed, Y. Sreenivasulu, M. Reddy, V. Baranwal, and K. Purushotham

Huanglongbing (HLB), previously known as citrus greening disease (CGD) is one of the most destructive disease of citrus and responsible for decline of citrus orchards in Andhra Pradesh (A. P) and other citrus growing areas in the country. A preliminary survey on prevalence of HLB associated with citrus was carried out in three major sweet orange growing districts of A. P and the results revealed that a high incidence of 14.5% was recorded in Prakasam district followed by Kadapa (13.18%) and Nellore (12.59%). The DNA extracted from different plant parts of acidlime, i.e. bark, midrib, vein and lamina by CTAB and SS Tris-EDTA methods were subjected to PCR amplification. An amplification product of 1150 bp was observed in bark, midrib and vein. However, no amplification was observed in leaf lamina. Between CTAB and SS Tris-EDTA method, DNA from SS Tris-EDTA method yielded bright band compared to CTAB method. Detection of HLB in sweet orange was done from December 2004 to April 2005 at fortnight interval. It was observed that an excellent amplification product of 1150 bp was observed from December 2004 to February 2005. From March onwards a mild amplification of 1150 bp was observed in both the methods. So it can be concluded that winter season will be the suitable period for detection of the pathogen. Between these two methods of DNA extraction CTAB method was useful for detection of HLB in midrib and veins while SS Tris-EDTA method was useful for detection in bark of sweet orange.

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