Authors:G. Balázs, I. Baracskai, M. Nádosi, A. Harasztos, F. Békés, and S. Tömösközi
-on-a-Chip capillaryelectrophoresis. —in: Black, C.K., Panozzo, J.F. & Rebetzke, G.J. (Eds), Proceedings of the 54th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference and the 11th Wheat Breeders’ Assembly . Royal Australian Chemical Institute, Melbourne, pp. 411
Authors:S. Gonda, L. Tóth, P. Parizsa, M. Nyitrai, and G. Vasas
Five species of Plantago genus, namely P. lanceolata, P. major, P. media, P. altissima and P. maritima were screened for iridoid content (CE-MEKC), total caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside (CPG) content and antioxidant activity (CUPRAC assay). The five species could be distinguished by TLC pattern analysis in a single run in a system commonly used for quality management of P. lanceolata leaves, as shown by cluster analysis of major bands; with the exception, that P. altissima and P. lanceolata did not show enough pattern difference to be fully separated. P. maritima was shown to have the highest antioxidant capacity (0.42 μmol ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g DW), and the highest level of CPGs (4.29%). P. altissima was shown to be chemically indistinguishable from P. lanceolata with repsect to iridoid content (aucubin 0.55 ± 0.04%, 0.68 ± 0.23%, catalpol 0.66 ± 0.13% and 0.89 ± 0.22%, respectively), CPG content (2.40 ± 0.38% and 2.54 ± 0.56%, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (0.2206 ± 0.0290 and 0.2428 ± 0.0191 μmol AAEAC/g DW). The presented data show the potency of medicinal use of Hungarian wild populations of the studied five species, especially in the case of P. maritima, and that P. altissima can be a potential replacement of P. lanceolata in herbal mixtures.
Authors:N. Akhtar, Md. Faiyazuddin, G. Mustafa, Y. Sultana, S. Baboota, and J. Ali
Formaldehyde in aquatic products was determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Separation was carried out at 25 °C and 25 kV, using a fused silica capillary (75 µ internal diameter; 50.5 cm effective length) and an ultraviolet detector set at 360 nm. The optimal background electrolyte was 20 mM sodium tetraborate and 20 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 9.0 with 3 s hydrodynamic injection at 30 mbar. Electrophoretic analysis took approximately 6.5 min. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was 0.999 over the concentration range 2.0–100.0 mg L−1, and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.57 and 1.89 µg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries were from 83.7% to 97.2% with steam distillation as the sample pretreatment method.
Authors:László Fésüs, Attila Zsolnai, István Anton, and László Sáfár
The first results of the Hungarian sheep prion protein (PrP) genotyping programme are discussed in this paper. To obtain initial genotype frequency data 10 commercial (Hungarian Merino, German Mutton Merino, Merino Landschaf, German Blackheaded, Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France, Charollais, Lacaune, British Milksheep) and 4 indigenous (Gyimes Racka, Hortobágy Racka, Tsigaja, Cikta) breeds were sampled in 2003 and 2004, and the PrP genotypes were determined by microsequencing analysis with capillary electrophoresis. In all commercial breeds, a higher number of sheep were genotyped in 2005 (3648) and in 2006 (3834) within the breeding programme to increase scrapie resistance, and the estimated frequency data were compared to the initial figures to evaluate the efficiency of selection. The new developments arising from the identification of the so-called ‘atypical’ scrapie cases are also discussed.
Authors:M. Kohlíčková-Koudelková, R. Konířová, and V. Jedináková-Křížová
A large group of radiopharmaceuticals includes complex radionuclide-ligand compounds which are very sensitive to the preparation conditions, as for example pH of reaction mixture, incubation time, temperature, molar ratio of reagents, etc. It is necessary to find the optimum condition for the formation of the radionuclide-ligand complex and to select the convenient analytical methods to determine the purity of the product. The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled by rhenium-186 or rhenium-188 requires the addition of a reducing agent (commonly stannous chloride) to the reaction mixture in order to reduce perrhenate to a lower oxidation state which is capable of complex formation. For rhenium concentration up to approximately 10-5 mol/l, the molar excess of reduction agent over perrhenate is usually higher than 800 to reach the optimum yield of reduction and complexation (between 80-95%). Because of the potentially toxic effect of SnCl2 the reduction of perrhenate by stannous chloride was studied in detail to find the way for decreasing the concentration of reducing agent in the reaction mixture without significant lowering of the yield of perrhenate reduction. The reduction of perrhenate was determined by electromigration methods, i.e., capillary electrophoresis (CZE) and isotachophoresis (ITP), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with radiometric detection. The highest degree of reduction of perrhenate was obtained at pH 2 at perrhenate concentration ranging from 10-4 to 10-3 mol/l. The stability of reduced rhenium against a pH change from 2 to 5.5 (which corresponds to the pH close to physiological values) was tested as well. The influence of the presence of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant in the reaction mixture on the stability of the preparation against the pH change was determined. The stability of reduced rhenium against dilution of rhenium in the reaction mixture to the concentration suitable for the application in radiotherapy was also found out. The data acquired by capillary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis and thin-layer chromatography are comparable. Results obtained in these experiments were applied for the study of rhenium complexes with hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (HEDP).
Authors:G. Klunder, J. Andrews, M. Church, J. Spear, R. Russo, P. Grant, and B. Andresen
Capillary electrophoresis has been used to separate metal ions characteristically associated with nuclear fission. Electrokinetic
injections and transient isotachophoretic techniques were employed to increase sample loading and provide on-column concentration
of the analyte. On-line concentration factors of approximately 700-fold have been achieved. Indirect-UV absorbance, on-line
radioactivity, and indirect laser-induced fluorescence detection were used to monitor analytes of interest. The radioactivity
detector consists of a plastic scintillator and photomultiplier tube with a 4π detection geometry. The efficiency was determined
to be approximately 80%, enabling samples resident in the detector window for 0.1 minutes to be reliably assayed. Detection
of152Eu and137Cs was achieved at the low nCi level. Indirect fluorescence was performed with quinine sulfate as the background fluorophor
with α-hydroxysobutyric acid added as a complexing agent. An argon ion laser was used as the excitation source with a diode
array detector. Limits of detection for La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, and Eu3+ were determined to be in the sub — 10 ppb range (6–11 nM) with indirect laser-induced fluorescence detection.
Authors:S. Oueslati, S. Hadj Fredj, R. Belhaj, H. Siala, A. Bibi, and Taieb Messaoud
The analysis of some extra- and intragenic markers within or closely linked to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene is useful as a molecular method in clinical linkage analysis. Indeed, knowing that the molecular basis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly heterogeneous in our population, the study of haplotype association with normal and CF chromosomes could be very helpful in cases where one or both mutations remain unidentified. In this study, we analysed with PCR-RFLP and capillary electrophoresis some extra (pJ3.11, KM19 and XV2C) and intragenic (IVS8CA, IVS17bTA and IVS17bCA) polymorphic markers in 50 normal and 10 Tunisian patients carrying the rare E1104X mutation in order to determine the haplotype associated with this mutation. For the extragenic markers, 8 haplotypes were identified. The most frequent of them are the 221 and 112 accounting for 80% of total haplotypes. For the intragenic markers, five haplotypes were present on the E1104X chromosomes. One of them 16-31-13 accounted for 50%. To our knowledge, this is the first work to be interested to the haplotypes linked to the E1104X mutation. This preliminary study of haplotypes could be a helpful method to determine the molecular lesions responsible of this pathology.
Authors:Gergely Zachar, Tamás Jakó, István Vincze, Zsolt Wagner, Tamás Tábi, Eszter Bálint, Szilvia Mezey, Éva Szökő, and András Csillag
D-aspartate (D-Asp) modulates adult neural plasticity and embryonic brain development by promoting cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Here, developmental changes of the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) L-Glu, L-Asp and D-Asp were determined during the first postembryonic days, a time window for early learning, in selected brain regions of domestic chickens after chiral separation and capillary electrophoresis. Extracellular concentration (ECC) of EAAs was measured in microdialysis samples from freely moving chicks. ECC of D-Asp (but not L-EAAs) decreased during the first week of age, with no considerable regional or learning-related variation. ECC of L-Asp and L-Glu (but not of D-Asp) were elevated in the mSt/Ac in response to a rewarding stimulus, suggesting importance of Asp-Glu co-release in synaptic plasticity of basal ganglia. Potassium-evoked release of D-Asp, with a protracted transient, was also demonstrated. D-Asp constitutes greater percentage of total aspartate in the extracellular space than in whole tissue extracts, thus the bulk of D-Asp detected in tissue appears in the extracellular space. Conversely, only a fraction of tissue L-EAAs can be detected in extracellular space. The lack of changes in tissue D-Asp following avoidance learning indicates a tonic, rather than phasic, mechanism in the neuromodulatory action of this amino acid.