Authors:Enikő Kádár, J. Salánki, J. Powell, and et al
aluminum concentration of the aqueous environment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32 , 2591-2595.
Mucus secretion by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis its aluminum concentration of the aqueous environment
Authors:Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, Alina Woźniak, B. Woźniak, G. Drewa, Bogumiła Chęsy, T. Drewa, Ewa Krzyżyńska-Malinowska, and R. Ceraficki
In this study we examined superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration in liver and muscles of four fish species: the carp, the brown trout, the white cod and the flounder. Higher SOD activity and higher TBARS concentration was revealed in the tissues of marine fish in comparison to freshwater fish. The highest SOD activity was observed in the cod while the highest TBARS concentration was in the flounder. The observed differences are probably an effect of the different living mode of the compared fish.
Authors:Tijana B. Kovačević, Slavica S. Borković, S. Z. Pavlović, R. M. Radojičić, and Zorica S. Saičić
We examined the concentrations of vitamin E (vit E), sulphydryl groups (-SH), total protein and protein electrophoretic profiles in the hepatopancreas, the gills and muscle of three freshwater crayfish species: Noble crayfish (Astacus astacus), stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium) and spiny cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus). Vit E concentration in the hepatopancreas of O. limosus was lower compared to A. astacus, while in the gills of O. limosus it was lower compared to both A. astacus and A. torrentium. The concentration of -SH groups was lower in the hepatopancreas of A. astacus compared to A. torrentium and O. limosus. In the gills of A. astacus and A. torrentium the concentration of -SH groups was higher compared to O. limosus. Protein concentration was higher in the hepatopancreas of A. torrentium compared to A. astacus and O. limosus. A lower protein concentration in muscle of A. torrentium was found compared to O. limosus and A. astacus. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins indicated species and tissue specifities between investigated crayfish species. Our results represent the first study of its kind and provide the basis for future studies that will consider our reported parameters as potential biomarkers for biomonitoring of basic environmental conditions and some anthropogenic impacts.
Authors:H. Dębski, W. Wiczkowski, D. Szawara-Nowak, N. Bączek, M. Szwed, and M. Horbowicz
The effects of two light intensities on the concentration of several flavonoids were investigated in the cotyledons of common buckwheat seedlings. The study was performed on four days old seedlings of cvs. Hruszowska, Panda, Kora and Red Corolla. One group of seedlings was grown under exposure to 180 ± 20 μmol · m−2 · s−1 photosynthetically active radiation, whereas the other group was exposed to 360 ± 20 μmol · m−2 · s−1. The experiment lasted 5 days. The results revealed that light intensity induces changes in the levels of flavonols and flavones. Increased light intensity contributed to a decrease in the concentrations of all flavone C-glucosides: orientin (luteolin-8-C-glucoside) and iso-orientin (luteolin-6-C-glucoside), and apigenin: vitexin (apigenin-8-C-glucoside) and iso-vitexin (apigenin-6-C-glucoside). Simultaneously, a substantial increase in the content of flavonols, i.e. quercetin O-glycosides, was found. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence to demonstrate the contrary responses of plant flavonols and flavones to light intensity. The content of anthocyanin also increased under exposure to higher light intensity. Our results indicate that quercetin O-glycosides can play a similar role to anthocyanins in the cotyledons of common buckwheat seedlings. Results of correlation analysis indicate that the increase in flavonol and anthocyanin concentrations in response to higher light intensity is maintained through reduced accumulation of flavones and proanthocyanidins.
Authors:Hanna Kruczkowska, Helena Pawłowska, and Barbara Skucińska
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of various 2,4-D concentrations on the androgenic response and plant development in anther culture of barley. Anthers were either plated directly on the FHG medium supplemented with 20 mg dm
of 2,4-D, or pretreated with 0.7 mol dm
mannitol and plated on an induction medium containing various concentrations of 2,4-D: 0.2, 2.0, or 20 mg dm
. The concentration of 20 mg dm
was used for 3 days only; subsequently, anthers were transferred onto the medium containing 0.2 mg dm
of 2,4-D. It was shown that osmotic stress cannot be replaced with the high concentration of 2,4-D. The most numerous embryos, embryogenic calli, and plants (including green plants) were obtained with 0.7mol dm
mannitol pretreatment and 0.2 mg dm
of 2,4-D in the induction medium. The auxin concentration also affected the dynamics of embryogenic structure formation and plant development from embryogenic structures. The concentrations higher than 0.2 mg dm
slowed down embryogenic structure formation and plant development, and they increased the proportion of calli as compared to embryos in plant regeneration.
Authors:X.G. Hu, J. Liu, L. Zhang, B.H. Wu, J.L. Hu, D.C. Liu, and Y.L. Zheng
Grains of 12 accessions of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. ssp. timopheevii (AAGG, 2n = 4x = 28) and one bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS) and one durum wheat cultivar Langdon (LDN) grown across two years were analyzed for grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. All the 12 tested T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii genotypes showed significantly higher concentration of grain Fe and Zn than CS and LDN. Aboundant genetic variability of both the Fe and Zn concentrations was observed among the T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii accessions, averagely varied from 47.06 to 90.26 mg kg−1 and from 30.05 to 65.91 mg kg−1, respectively. Their grain Fe and Zn concentrations between years exhibited a significantly positive correlation with the correlation coefficients r = 0.895 and r = 0.891, respectively, indicating the highly genetic stability. Flag leaf possessed twice or three times higher concentrations for both Fe and Zn than grain, and a significantly high positive correlation appeared between the two organs with r = 0.648 for Fe and r = 0.957 for Zn concentrations, respectively, suggesting flag leaves might be indirectly used for evaluating grain Zn and Fe contents. Significant correlations occurred between grain Fe and Zn concentrations, and between grain Zn concentration and the two agronomic traits of plant height and number of spikelets per spike. Both the concentrations were not related to seed size or weight as well as NAM-G1 gene, implying the higher grain Fe and Zn concentrations of T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii species are not ascribed to concentration effects of seed and the genetic control of NAM-G1 gene. There might be some other biological factors impacting the grain’s Zn and Fe concentrations. These results indicated T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii species might be a promising genetic resource with high Fe and Zn concentrations for the biofortification of current wheat cultivars.
Field experiments were conducted in June-September 1998 and 1999 with rice variety ASD18 at the wetland farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, in Coimbatore, India to examine variations in 'Y' leaf (youngest fully expanded leaf) N concentration as influenced by different planting densities and N management strategies in a split plot design. The main plot consisted of three plant populations (33, 66 and 100 hills m-2) and the sub-plots treatments of five N management approaches. The results revealed that the nitrogen concentration progressively declined with growth, the decline being steep up to 35 days after transplanting, wereafter the values became almost linear up to the flowering stage in all the treatments. The mean 'Y' leaf N was found to be significantly higher at 33 hills m-2 (45.1 g kg-1), while the other two densities were on par (42.9 g kg-1). When N application was based on chlorophyll meter (SPAD) values the leaf N concentration was maintained at a level of 39.2 to 51.9 g kg-1 to produce maximum grain yield. A significant correlation was observed between the chlorophyll meter values and 'Y' leaf N concentrations at various days after transplanting (r values ranged from 0.57* to 0.83**), while the correlation was highly significant during the major physiological growth stages. Though the 'Y' leaf content was significantly higher in the treatment involving Sesbania rostrata green manuring + 150 kg N applied in splits, the grain yield produced was on par in all the N applied treatments. A highly significant correlation was observed between the grain yield and both 'Y' leaf N content and SPAD values during various growth periods.