Authors:M. Szalai, J. Szigeti, L. Farkas, L. Varga, A. Réti, and E. Zukál
The shelf-lives of major commercial cooked meat products (i.e., Bologna sausage, Italian-type cooked sausage, and cooked ham) packaged under vacuum or modified atmospheres were tested in this study. Samples were taken from commercial meat processing lines, sliced to 1.2 mm thickness and placed overlapped into polypropylene trays sealed with plastic films. The headspace of modified atmosphere packaged formulations consisted of 30% CO2 and 70% N2 or 60% CO2 and 40% N2. The samples thus produced were stored under refrigerated conditions. The values of microbiological, chemical, physical or sensory properties were plotted against storage time, and Gompertz curves were fitted to all time series that changed from an initial to a final value during any period of storage. The influence of headspace CO2 concentration on the properties of sliced cooked meat products varied considerably and, therefore, it was not possible to specify general rules. However, the presence of CO2 in the packaging atmosphere slowed down the rate of microbial growth, thereby delaying the spoilage of meat products. A CO2 level of 60% had beneficial effects on both the microbiological and sensory properties of sliced sausages and cooked ham. It was concluded that cooked meat products packaged under modified atmospheres had a shelf-life of 20 days.
Lactic acid fermentation of carrot as a method of preservation using different lactic acid bacteria, viz.
Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus cerevisiae
as such and in sequence at different temperatures and with varying salt content (2, 2.5 and 3%) were employed in the fermentation of carrot. The differences in fermentation behaviour of different microorganisms were quite contrasting at 26 °C, but the sequential culture started deviating from the very first day and acidity increased up to 6 days. A temperature of 26 °C and salt concentration of 2.5% were the best for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation of Asiatic carrot as highest acidity (1.40% lactic acid), low pH and low reducing sugars were achieved in sequential fermentation. The LAB count of 7.8×10
was also higher at these concentrations coupled with higher sensory scores of the products. Among the fermentation types tried, sequential culture fermentation of the vegetables produced the product with higher acidity, low pH and reducing sugars. The sequential culture fermentation imparted the fermented products better flavour, texture and taste than other products fermented naturally or with lactic cultures of
Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum
in single separate fermentation. Based on the overall and sensory quality evaluation, the fermented carrot product prepared with sequential culture was the best followed by the product prepared using natural microflora.
The study was conducted to examine the effect of penicillin (0.003 IJ ml -1 of milk) in concentration below the sensitivity level of biological methods (Delvo SP and Resasurine test) on yoghurt cultures. According to the results obtained, the stated penicillin concentration prolonged the period of final incubation in the bulk starter (3 h and 20 min) and in yoghurt (3 h and 40 min). The total count of S. thermophilus colonies in the bulk starter and yoghurt is also reduced with a loss of one (log 7.32), that is, two logarithmic numbers (log 6.53) compared with the control samples (without penicillin). The total count of L. bulgaricus colonies was higher in the control samples compared with the experimental samples. Upon the final incubation period and storage for 18 h at 5 °C, there was a drop in the titratable acidity and an increase in pH values of the control samples. Microscopic examination of the control samples showed a gradual disappearance of streptococci with a complete prevalence of lactobacilli in yoghurt. Additionally, morphological changes occurred in streptococci (long chains) and lactobacilli (long and irregular rods).
Authors:A. Păucean, D.C. Vodnar, V. Mureșan, F. Fetea, F. Ranga, S.M. Man, S. Muste, and C. Socaciu
The lactic acid bacteria are key microorganisms for the production and preservation of fermented dairy products, cheeses, sourdough bread, and lacto-fermented vegetables. This study was developed to monitor lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, as single strains and combined, in fermenting media by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy coupled to multivariate statistical analysis. Media containing different mixtures of carbohydrates were chosen as model fermenting media for monitoring lactic acid concentration by infrared spectroscopy, due to the fact that vegetable and animal food matrices could contain different carbohydrates as carbon sources. Three different types of media were obtained by adding different carbohydrates to a basic MRS medium. HPLC was used as reference method for lactic acid quantification. The calibration set (n=36) was used for building model, while a validation set (n=13) for testing the robustness of the developed model. The coefficients of determination between predicted and reference values were 0.986 and 0.965, while root mean square error for calibration and validation sets recorded values of 0.127 and 0.263 g·l−1, respectively. Results confirmed the efficiency of FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistics, as a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective tool for routine monitoring of lactic acid.
Authors:B. Nagy, J. Soós, B. Horvath, M. Kállay, B. Nyúl-Pühra, and D. Nyitrai-Sárdy
, V. , Pons , A. & Duboudieu , D. ( 2007 ): Assay of glutathione in must and wines using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection. Changes in concentration in dry white wines during alcoholic
In a 120 min osmotic dehydration procedure followed by an air drying process, the effect of carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC) on some qualitative characteristics of apple slabs including browning index (BI) and rehydration capacity were studied. Moreover, the relation between textural and sensory properties, such as hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, adhesiveness and chewiness, was investigated. Samples containing higher coating concentrations (1–1.5%) showed higher rehydration capacity and lower browning index compared to those with lower coating concentrations (0.25–0.5%). Weibull distribution model was used to investigate the effect of coating concentration on drying kinetics. The results of sensory tests showed that the overall acceptance of samples is increased with decreasing coating concentration, and an appropriate correlation was found between sensory properties and textural parameters.
Authors:J.K. Odusote, A.A. Adeleke, P.P. Ikubanni, O.S. Ayanda, J.M. Abdul, and R.A. Yahya
corrosion, a passive oxide adherent film is usually formed in various environments. The amphoteric nature of the oxide film causes it to dissolve significantly when the metal is placed in a high concentration of acidic or basic media [ 5 ]. After the oxide
Detailed analysis of household generated greywater (GW) samples is an essential task for the design of treatment systems before reuse. In this paper modern analytical methods will be discussed, which were applied to determine the ionic and elemental concentration of different GW samples. Ion chromatography (IC) and Microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) methods were used to spoor the composition of GW samples. It was shown that from the IC results and from calculated parameters (Na ee% and SAR) the application of raw or treated GW flows for irrigation is controlled. According to the elemental concentration, GW samples from laundry/kitchen sink and dishwasher proved to be the most contaminated compared to drinking water, while the concentration of the measured elements did not elevate as significantly in GW samples from shower/bathtub.
The aim of this article is to examine the effect of temperature, humidity, air velocity and CO2 concentration regarding the human behaviour in indoor environment with natural ventilation, i.e. without a ventilation device, or where there is forced ventilation or an air conditioning.