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Bai, G.H., Desjardins, A.E., Plattner, R.D. 2001. Deoxynivalenol-nonproducing Fusarium graminearum causes initial infection, but does not cause disease spread in wheat spikes. Mycopathologia 153 :91

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We examined the blastogenic response to phytohaemaglutinin (PHA) in HLA-B8, DR3 positive and negative subjects in the presence or absence of the immunosuppressive Fusarium mycotoxin.  HLA-B8, DR3 haplotype was associated with a depression of the response to mitogen in the absence of the mycotoxin, whereas in the presence of deoxynivalenol we could not detect significant differences among individuals either possessing or lacking this haplotype.

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Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) are mycotoxins frequently detected in Fusarium -infected cereal grain. Both toxins are produced by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum during the development of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease. We are developing tools to allow us to simultaneously detect DON and ZON production by Fusarium species. We generated a transgenic F. culmorum strain that expresses fluorescent proteins under the control of promoters of genes that are essential for the biosynthesis of DON (trichodiene synthase; Tri5 ) and ZON (a promoter that drives two polyketide synthetases, Zea1 and Zea2 ). We developed a duplex real time PCR assays for the concurrent analysis of Zea1 and Tri4 (another gene essential for DON production). We are currently generating a multiplex real time PCR version of this assay to detect Zea1 , Tri4 and a plant actin ( Act1 ) gene. This assay can be used to detect DON and ZON producers in grain; Act1 serves as a positive control plant gene in the reaction. We are also developing a multiplex real time RT-PCR assay to detect Zea1 , Tri4 and a F. culmorum/F. graminearum beta-tubulin ( Btub ) gene. Incorporation of the Btub enables normalization of Tri4 and Zea1 transcript expression, relative to fungal abundance.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: G. Aureli, T. Amoriello, A. Belocchi, M.G. D’Egidio, M. Fornara, S. Melloni, and F. Quaranta

This study was carried out to determine the co-occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the sum of T2 and HT2 toxins in durum wheat samples belonging to eight cultivars grown in a national network experimental trials over a three-year period (2011–2013). The effect of several factors (cultivar, year and cultivation area) affecting the occurrence of the two types of mycotoxins and their relationship with several agronomic and grain quality parameters were assayed by statistical analysis (GLZ). The results highlighted the different trend of incidence and contamination rate of the two types of mycotoxins in relation to the cropping year and to the growing examined areas. Year and its interaction with the cultivation area was the most important factor affecting the DON contamination, whereas genotype and its interaction with the year mainly influenced T2+HT2 toxins contamination rate. DON and T2+HT2 contamination levels were not significantly correlated with each other. The evidence that the two types of mycotoxins were differently related with several agronomic and grain quality parameters could be connected to the effects of the respective fungal disease on wheat plant.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M. Camerini, T. Amoriello, G. Aureli, A. Belocchi, M. Fornara, S. Melloni, and F. Quaranta

Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination was investigated of Italian durum wheat from organic agriculture. A number of 661 samples from 13 genotypes were collected within the national organic durum wheat network variety trials during the six-year period between 2007–2012 in five different growing areas across Italy (Northern Italy, Marches, Central Apennines, West-Central Italy, Apulia). Mean temperatures and total rainfalls in April, May and June were collected nearby the study sites. Average DON contamination value along the whole study period was 67 μg/kg, and DON was detected only in 36% of the samples. Noteworthy, 95% of the analyzed grain revealed a DON contamination lower than 334 μg/kg. Maximum allowed DON level for unprocessed durum wheat set by European Union (1750 μg/kg) was exceeded only in four samples (0.6%). The highest mean DON values were detected in Northern Italy (175 μg/kg) and Marches (131 μg/kg). The same was for the percentage of positive samples (80% and 58%, respectively). Lower mean values and percentages of contaminated samples were found in West-Central Italy (22 μg/kg and 29%, respectively), Apennines (3 μg/kg and 8%, respectively) and Apulia (2 μg/kg and 7%, respectively). Statistical analysis (Generalized Linear Model, GLZ) was carried out to highlight the effect of factors like cultivation year, growing area and genotype. It revealed a huge effect of year, growing areas and their interaction, while the effect of genotype resulted significantly but quite less than the other main factors. The effect of the year could be explained by climatic data, which suggested an influence of rainfall and temperature at heading on both DON concentration values and percentage of contaminated samples. Results of this study put in evidence a low DON contamination in Italian organic durum wheat.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Marc Lemmens, Andrea Koutnik, Barbara Steiner, Hermann Buerstmayr, Franz Berthiller, Rainer Schuhmacher, Frank Maier, and Wilhelm Schäfer

., Koutnik, A., Schuhmacher, R., Adam, G., Buerstmayr, H., Mesterhazy, A., Krska, R., Ruckenbauer, P. 2005. The ability to detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol co-localizes with a major QTL for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat. MPMI 18: 1318

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Birzele B. — Meier A. — Hindorf H. — Krämer J. — Dehne H.-W.: 2002. Epidemiology of Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol content in winter wheat in the Rhineland, Germany — European Journal of Plant

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Fusarium head blight (FHB) of oat in western Canada was determined to be caused by a complex of Fusarium species, the composition and proportions of which varied considerably among years, and between Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the two main oat production regions (provinces) in western Canada. The levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), associated with Fusarium graminearum infection, were considerably higher in oat than in wheat and especially in barley, when levels of DON were compared to those of F. graminearum on seed, suggesting that oat may stimulate production of the mycotoxin by this causal species during the infection process, compared to that in other cereals. Testing of oat cultivars and lines for reaction to FHB indicated that while differences existed, these were relatively small. ‘Naked’ oats, in general, were more resistant. Several of the exotic oat accessions tested appeared to have superior levels of resistance and these are being used as parents in crosses to improve resistance in adapted, high quality oats.

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The mycotoxins β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and deoxynivalenol (DON) produce toxic effects that result in diseases in humans and animals. The molecular mechanisms that control the mycotoxin-mediated effects are far from being completely understood. Various results show that these mycotoxins could inhibit cell proliferation. In the present short communication, the influence of β-ZOL and DON on the abundance and phosphorylation state of kinases that are included in regulation of the initiation of mRNA translation (which is correlated with cell proliferation) was compared in porcine endometrial cells (PEC). Our results indicate that these mycotoxins modulate the expression and phosphorylation of these factors in a different manner. Whereas β-ZOL mainly had an impact on the biological activity of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its repressor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), DON reduced the abundance of p38 MAPk, Akt and specific 4E-BP1 bands. In summary, these results indicate that β-ZOL influences molecular events that are included in the initiation of mRNA translation in the porcine endometrium but DON does not alter such processes clearly.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Thomas Miedaner, Martin Löffler, Christof Bolduan, Bettina Kessel, Milena Ouzunova, Vilson Mirdita, and Albrecht Melchinger

Gibberella ear rot severity and deoxynivalenol concentration. J. Phytopathology 144 :431–436. Hamilton R.I. A 4-year study of the association between Gibberella ear rot severity and

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