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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Viktor Hegedüs, Domokos Gerő, Zoltán Mihály, Attila Szijártó, Tivadar Zelles, and Éva Sárdi

A redox-homeosztázis változása a citokinek és szabad gyökök változásával jár és számos intracelluláris jelátviteli utat befolyásolhat különböző májbetegségekben. A liofilizált cékla+répa készítmény (GPS Powder Kft. 1361/004/ 2003BFÁÉÉÁ) bioaktív komponensei, mint például a betain, betaninok, betaxantinok, flavonoidok, polifenolok, glutamin, β-karotin, vitaminok és folsav megváltoztathatják a különböző sejtfolyamatokat. Célok: A szerzők célul tűzték ki a cékla+répa liofilizált készítmény bioaktív hatóanyagai védőhatásának vizsgálatát experimentális zsírmájban. Módszer: Hím Wistar patkányokat etettek standard és zsírdús táppal (a standard tápot kiegészítették 2% koleszterinnel, 0,5% kólsavval és 20% napraforgóolajjal) és a kezelt csoportoknak az etetéssel együtt 0,1 vagy 1 g/ttkg/nap természetes készítményt adagoltak. Az indukálható ciklooxigenáz-2 enzim, az indukált nitrogén-monoxid-szintetáz és a tumornekrózis-faktor-α mRNS-szinteket molekuláris-biológiai módszerekkel határozták meg. A szabad gyököket, a H-donor-aktivitást, a redukálóképességet és a szabad SH-csoport-koncentrációt luminometriás vagy spektrofotometriás eljárással mérték. A mobilizálható metilcsoportokat túlnyomásos folyadék-kromatográfiával tanulmányozták. Eredmények: A nagyobb dózisú természetes készítmény jobban csökkentette az indukált szabadgyök-reakciókat, az indukálható ciklooxigenáz-2 enzim, az indukált nitrogén-monoxid-szintetáz és tumornekrózis-faktor-α mRNS-szintjeit, mind egészséges májszövetben, mind zsírmájban. Bár a kezelés nem gyakorolt szignifikáns változásokat az összes globális antioxidáns-paraméterre, zsírmájban a kezelés után megnövekedett mobilizálható metilcsoport-koncentrációkat észleltek és kedvező tendenciát találtak a máj redox-homeosztázisában is. Következtetések: A vártnak megfelelően a mérsékelt dózisú cékla+répa liofilizátum „funkcionális élelmiszernek” bizonyult az élelmi zsír által indukált experimentális zsírmájban. Lehetséges, hogy e kedvező hatás a klinikumban is hasznosulást nyerhet. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 1035–1042.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Mónika Fekete, Gergő Szőllősi, Anna Noémi Németh, and János Tamás Varga

and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. JAMA 1995; 274: 1363–1367. 32 Kiss O, Sydó N, Merkely B. Favourable effects of omega-3 fatty acid dietary

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Summary  

The thermal neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) facility, operated by the US Food and Drug Administration and National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research, has been redesigned to lower background radiation levels and improved analytical capabilities. Analysis of 22 element standards and food and botanical certified reference materials revealed significant sensitivity increases and lower limits of detection for H, B, C, N, Na, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cd. Mass fractions for these elements, as well as Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, I, Zn, Sm, and Gd, were determined for 6 dietary supplements.

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A particularly rapid HPTLC method has been established for chromatographic separation and quantification of p -aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in complex dietary supplement tablets. After chromatography, PABA was determined by spectrodensitometry at 270 nm. PABA spots were then visualized by a novel staining procedure involving the Bratton-Marshall coupling reaction after spraying with 8-hydroxyquinoline in situ on the chromatographic plates. After visualization, spectrodensitometric analysis was repeated at 500 nm. Linearity, intermediate precision, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision were compared for both methods. Results from tablet analysis were verified with the modified Bratton-Marshall spectrophotometric procedure.

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An analysis of the iron state in commercial pharmaceuticals containing ferric and ferrous iron compounds, which are used for treatment of iron deficiency, was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small variations of the FeOOH cores of injectable iron-dextran complexes were observed. The presence of ferrous impurity in iron-dextran complexes was found. Characterization of the iron state in vitamins and dietary supplements containing ferrous compounds was made. The presence of ferrous and ferric impurities and iron compounds that were in disagreement with compounds announced by the manufacturer was detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors: R.-R. Durón, L. C. Almaguer, A. De J. Garza-Juárez, Ma. De La Luz, Salazar Cavazos, and N. Waksman-De-Torres

Summary

Use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for quality control of herbal medicinal products (HMPs) is very useful for determining and comparing the compositions of such products. In Mexico, HMPs are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there is no legislation regarding their quality control. Heterotheca inuloides, Citrus aurantium, Peumus boldus, Equisetum arvense, Eucalyptus globulus, Ginkgo biloba, Mentha piperita, Aloe vera, Salvia officinalis, and Cassia senna are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants in this region. In this paper we describe the effectiveness of TLC methods for quality control of several commercial products containing plants and their extracts. We used one or several specific markers for each type of plant. In only 20% of the 40 commercial products that were analysed did the chromatographic characteristics of the respective plants match those of the specific respective marker compounds. These results highlighted a problem arising from the lack of regulation of these products. The proposed TLC methods are simple, sensitive, and specific, and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbal products and formulations of the plants tested. The results obtained emphasize the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico.

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Broiler chicken and rabbit experiments were carried out to study the effects of nickel (Ni) supplementation on growth performance and Ni metabolism. ROSS cockerels and New Zealand White female rabbits were fed a diet containing Ni in concentrations of 0, 50 and 500 mg/kg in dry matter (DM). Dietary supplementation of 50 mg Ni/kg slightly improved the body weight gain (BWG) and had a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in broiler chickens. However, Ni added at a level of 500 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the BWG by 10% and resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) worse (2.3 ± 0.2 kg/kg) FCE. The relative weight of the liver in cockerels was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by Ni as compared to the control group (1.7 and 2.1% vs. 2.6%). The activity of AST and CHE enzymes was increased insignificantly by dietary supplementation of 500 mg Ni/kg, indicating damage of the liver parenchyma. The results of serum biochemistry were confirmed by a mild or moderate form of pathological focal fatty infiltration of the liver in broilers. Supplemental Ni of 50 mg/kg concentration resulted in non-significantly increased BWG in rabbits. Ni added to the diet at a level of 500 mg/kg reduced the digestibility of crude protein by 3-4% and that of crude fibre by 20-25% in rabbits. Approx. 98% of the ingested Ni was lost from the body via the faeces, 0.5-1.5% via the urine and approx. 1% was incorporated into the organs of rabbits. As a result of dietary supplementation of 50 and 500 mg Ni/kg, Ni accumulated in the kidneys (4.9 ± 0.5 and 17.1 ± 3.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.3 mg/kg DM), ribs (10.3 ± 0.4 and 10.4 ± 0.6 vs. 9.1 ± 0.6 mg/kg DM), heart (1.4 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.4 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1 mg/kg DM) and liver (1.3 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.05 mg/kg DM), as compared to the control animals. It can be stated that supplementation of the diet with 50 mg Ni/kg had slight but non-significant beneficial effects on the growth performance of broiler chickens and rabbits.

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Abstract  

In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2–6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geogrpahical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%.

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Nutritional supplements of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) have gained an increasing popularity in the western diet as an alternative treatment for menopausal complaints such as hot flashes. These effects are attributed to the present isoflavones with high amounts of formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein, glycitein and genistein. Isoflavones are nonsteroidal compounds, which are also called phytoestrogens because of their weak estrogenic effect. For the identification and quantification of these flavonoids, an HPTLC method was established. Chromatography was performed on silica gel HPTLC glass plates with dichloromethane-glacial acetic acid-ethyl acetate (12:2:1, v/v) as mobile phase leading to sufficient separation of the components. Consistent results could be achieved and an efficient distinction between different botanical supplements was possible. HPTLC analysis proved to be an inexpensive method for the quality control of red clover-based dietary supplements.

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A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for the quantification of two anthocyanins, viz., cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, from the berries of Euterpe oleracea Mart., commonly referred to as “acai” and dietary supplements claiming to contain acai. The extraction efficiency of anthocyanins from acai fruit pulp using acidified methanol was optimized using sonication techniques. Chromatographic separation of the selected anthocyanins was achieved with silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates using ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (10:1.1:1.1:2.6 ν/ν) as the mobile phase. Quantification of anthocyanins was carried out using a densitometric reflection/absorption mode at 520 nm. Polynomial calibration curves were plotted for the concentration range of 100–500 ng spot−1 for both compounds and produced good correlation coefficients >0.99. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, and repeatability. The method’s accuracy was evaluated by a recovery study conducted at two different concentrations. The average recovery was found to be 100 to 102%. The specificity of the method was confirmed using retention factor (R F) and spectral correlation.

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