Authors:Asieh Taji, Hamid Heidari, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Jamal Sarvari, and Mohammad Motamedifar
Multiple drug-resistant enterococci are the major cause of healthcare-associated infections due to their virulence and antibiotic resistance traits [ 1 – 4 ]. They are considered as critical agent for the
Authors:Seyedeh Marzieh Jabbari Shiadeh, Leila Azimi, Taher Azimi, Ali Pourmohammad, Mehdi Goudarzi, Bahare Gholami Chaboki, and Ali Hashemi
for disease control (CDC) announced that UTI causes 30% of acute care in hospitals [ 3 ]. The most plentiful gram-positive cocci in humans that are normally inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of nearly all animals are Enterococci [ 4 ]. Enterococci
Authors:Elina Reinoso, Silvana Dieser, Luis Calvinho, Cristina Bogni, and Liliana Odierno
., Hommez, J., Laevens, H., Pot, B., Vandamme, P. and Haesebrouck, F. (2002): Identification of aesculin-hydrolyzing streptococci, lactococci, aerococci and enterococci from subclinical intramammary infections in dairy cows. Vet. Microbiol.
Authors:Markus M. Heimesaat, Ulrike Escher, Anne Grunau, Ulrike Fiebiger, and Stefan Bereswill
days, main intestinal bacterial groups were quantitatively assessed in human donor fecal suspensions. (A) Numbers of viable enterobacteria (EB), enterococci (EC), Gram-positive rods (GPR), Bacteroides/Prevotella species (B/P), Clostridium
Authors:M. López, L. M. Medina, R. Huerta, and R. Jordano
The aim of this work was to study in six different types of European dry-sausages (of the Mediterranean area) the ocurrence of contaminant biota: enterobacteria, coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, sulphite-reducing clostridia, Salmonella-Shigella and Listeria monocytogenes, in the course of the ripening process. A total of 162 samples were analysed at different stages of the elaboration process. These were grouped in eighteen lots, three for each type of dry-sausages. Throughout the ripening process a decrease in some microbe groups (enterobacteria, coliforms, E. coli) occurred in all cases. Yeasts and enterococci remained the same or even increased in number. We have also confirmed the presence of Salmonella, sulphite-reducing clostridia and Listeria in some samples of unripened product. Consequently, an improvement could be desirable in the hygienic quality of the raw material of dry-sausages. Nevertheless, the final products analysed showed an acceptable state of food safety in all cases.
Authors:Miroslava Kačániová, Simona Pavličová, P. Haščík, G. Kociubinski, Vladimíra Kńazovická, M. Sudzina, Janka Sudzinová, and Martina Fikselová
As the honey-bee gastrointestinal tract microflora and pollen are the primary sources for the honey microbial community, the aim of this work was to study and characterize the microbial transit among them. Therefore, an exhaustive microbial analysis of honey, adult honey-bee gastrointestinal tract, and pollen from different Slovakian regions and different seasons, was conducted. Microbial screening revealed that the primary sources of microbial community present in Slovakian honey are pollen and the honey-bees’ digestive tract microflora, containing microorganisms normally present in dust, air and flowers. We found that the digestive tract of Slovakian adult honey-bees is highly populated by anaerobic, rather than aerobic bacteria, where coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci,
sp., microscopic fungi and yeast were found. Interestingly, statistical differences were found between the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of summer and winter bees. Pollen revealed the presence of mesophil anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms, coliforms and microscopic fungi. Among these, the most representative genera were
. In honey the counts of total anaerobic and total aerobic bacteria, that of coliforms, enterococci, bacilli, microscopic fungi and yeasts were monitored. Most frequently microscopic fungi belonging to genera
Authors:Aly Abo-Amer, El-Sayed Soltan, and Magdy Abu-Gharbia
Water is necessary to life so when supplied as drinking water to consumers, a satisfactory quality must be maintained. In Egypt, infectious intestinal diseases are the major cause of hospitalization in almost all regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples from urban and rural communities. Thirty-five samples of treated (chlorinated) water from taps, 25 samples of bottled water and 15 samples of hand pump (untreated) water collected from different cities alongside the River Nile during the winter of 2007 were bacteriologically tested for safety as drinking water. This study indicated good quality of tap water and bottled water. The untreated water samples (hand pumps) were, however, slightly contaminated by faecal coliforms, faecal enterococci,
Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella
. Consequently, the consumers in the villages receiving water through hand pumps are often exposed to the risk of water-borne diseases due to inadequate treatment of the raw water. Therefore, there are guidelines necessary to protect groundwater quality. Moreover, PCR-amplified by some functional gene fragments such as
dctA, dcuB, frdA, dcuS
was adapted for use as a non-cultivation-based molecular approach for detection of
populations from water samples without the need for pure and identified cultures.
Authors:Julia Münch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Martin Müller, Viktor Kellert, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Rebecca Hinz, Norbert Georg Schwarz, and Hagen Frickmann
The effectiveness of a disinfectant-based decolonization strategy for multidrug-resistant bacteria like extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Gram-negative bacteria with or without additional fluoroquinolon and carbapenem resistance as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was assessed.
Between 2011 and 2015, 25 patients from Libya, Syria, and the Ukraine with war traumata were treated at the Bundeswehr hospital Hamburg. The patients were heavily colonized and infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria, altogether comprising 371 distinct combinations of pathogens and isolation sites. Local disinfection was assessed for effectiveness regarding successful decolonization of multidrug-resistant bacteria.
Altogether, 170 cases of successful decolonization were observed, comprising 95 (55.8%) such events at sampling sites that were accessible to disinfecting procedures. The remaining 75 (44.2%) decolonization events had to be considered as spontaneous. In contrast, 95 out of 172 (55.2%) colonized isolation sites that were accessible to disinfection procedures were successfully decolonized. Patient compliance with the enforced hygiene procedures was associated with decolonization success. Systemic antibiotic therapy did not relevantly affect isolation time.
Disinfecting washing moderately supports local decolonization of multidrug-resistant pathogens in comparison with spontaneous decolonization rates if the patients’ compliance with the applied hygiene procedures is ensured.
Authors:Markus M. Heimesaat, Gernot Reifenberger, Viktoria Vicena, Anita Illes, Gabriella Horvath, Andrea Tamas, Balazs D. Fulop, Stefan Bereswill, and Dora Reglodi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypetide (PACAP) constitutes a neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the host exerting essential cytoprotective properties, whereas PACAP−/− mice display increased susceptibility to distinct immunopathological conditions. The orchestrated interplay between the gut microbiota and the host is pivotal in immune homeostasis and resistance to disease. Potential pertubations of the intestinal microbiota in PACAP−/− mice, however, have not been addressed so far. For the first time, we performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota composition in PACAP−/− and wildtype (WT) mice starting 2 weeks postpartum until 18 months of age applying quantitative culture-independent techniques. Fecal enterobacteria and enterococci were lower in PACAP−/− than WT mice aged 1 month and ≥6 months, respectively. Whereas Mouse Intestinal Bacteroides were slightly higher in PACAP−/− versus WT mice aged 1 and 6 months, this later in life held true for Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. (≥12 months) and lactobacilli (>15 months of age). Strikingly, health-beneficial bifidobacteria were virtually absent in the intestines of PACAP−/− mice, even when still breastfed. In conclusion, PACAP deficiency is accompanied by distinct changes in fecal microbiota composition with virtually absent bifidobacteria as a major hallmark that might be linked to increased susceptibility to disease.