Authors:Á. Csernetics, Zs. Péteri, B. Linka, and M. Takó
Mucor piriformis, Gilbertella persicaria and the members of the Rhizopus genus (especially R. stolonifer and R. oryzae) are the most important agents of post-harvest decay among the fungi belonging in the order Mucorales (Zygomycetes). Epidemiological studies and control of post-harvest losses require reproducible methods with which to distinguish and characterize the isolates. This review summarizes the available information regarding the genetic and physiological variability, strain typing and taxonomy of this fungal group.
Authors:J. Morris, R. Ngwenyama, J. Guthrie, J. Brockman, V. Spate, and J. Robertson
Instrumental neutron activation analysis is routinely used at the MURR to quantify selenium in prospectively-collected biologic
markers including blood serum and toenails. These specimens are typically collected from well-defined cohort populations participating
in investigations assessing selenium intake and incidence of chronic disease endpoints. These epidemiological investigations,
whether observational (case-control) or clinical (intervention), typically generate thousands of samples. The purpose of this
paper is to assess, through evaluation of quality control results, if the achievable accuracy and precision in the measurement
of selenium using NAA is adequate to determine a relative risk of 1.2 at high confidence in epidemiological studies.
This study aims to investigate whether known carcinogenic chemical elements in atmospheric deposition might be associated
with child mortality due to leukemia in the Portuguese population. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to explore the association
between lichen biomonitoring measurements of four elements—As, Hg, Ni, Pb—and childhood leukemia death counts taken at small
administrative units. This geographical epidemiological study found a non-significant positive association between the risk
of childhood leukemia and levels of arsenic, mercury and lead, and a non-significant negative association between the disease
and the level of nickel. Lead seems to show a weaker association with childhood leukemia than arsenic and mercury.
Lung cancer and smoking are associated. Epidemiological studies show that not only lung cancer but other chest diseases have
causative relationship with smoking. Cigarette tobacco and smoke contains many carcinogens. Inorganic and metallic constituents
of cigarette tobacco and smoke have not been studied as extensively as the organic compounds. Since some of the metals are
highly toxic and also carcinogenic, authors have attempted to measure the levels of some of the trace elements of Indian tobacco
by instrumental neutron activation analysis, and compared the results with the tobacco of America, Germany, Iran and New Zealand.
Authors:M. Menezes, E. Maia, C. Albinati, C. Sabino, and J. Batista
This paper describes the assessment of exposure levels to metals and possible workers' contamination in three galvanizing factories applying the same processes. Concerning the elements determined in air filters, 92.3% of them were also determined in hair and toenail samples: Ag, Al, As, Au, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Sb and Zn. These result point out that hair and toenail reflect the influence of the polluted environment on workers' health and can be useful as bioindicators in epidemiological studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to all matrices which confirms its status as one of the most versatile analytical techniques.
It may take time to obtain a vaccine for the current COVID-19, and the virus genome may keep an evolution and mutations, so a universal and effective vaccine for the coronavirus may not be possible. Epidemiological studies reveal the infection of SARS and COVID-19 in children is less frequent and less severe than in adults. Childhood vaccine-mediated cross cellular immunity and immunomodulation might provide protection against the infections of COVID-19. These data suggest that herd immunization with children vaccines in adults may improve the adult cross cellular immunity and immunomodulation and improve their clinical presentation and prognosis. This can be also useful to cope with future pandemics.
Authors:Ángela Lacombe-Antoneli, Segundo Píriz, Alberto Quesada, and Santiago Vadillo
Footrot is widely considered the most severe and most common foot pathology in small ruminants. This study tested the ability of a molecular typing system based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay of the 16S rRNA gene to discriminate between the strict anaerobe genera most commonly isolated from footrot (
Bacteroides, Dichelobacter, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas
) in goats in Extremadura (Spain), with a view to facilitating identification for diagnostic purposes and thus providing a useful tool for future epidemiological studies. Although the electrophoretic patterns obtained with the enzyme
1I were more readily interpreted, and may thus be the best initial option, results may be confirmed by a second enzyme (
I). The PCR-RFLP assay of the 16S rRNA gene may therefore prove a useful addition to conventional biochemical identification techniques, providing taxonomic information at genus level.
The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased riskfactors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies.In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, belowwhich, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologicmonitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinalstudy was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men.Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differencesbetween fingernails and toenails will be discussed. In addition, the resultswill be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitorto measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinantsare static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation.
Fusarium head blight disease (FHB) in wheat, caused by Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex), is a very serious disease threatening wheat production worldwide. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods have been established for rapid and quantitative detection of many plant pathogens. In this study, a specific pair of primers was designed based on the sequence of DNA fragment (740 bp) amplified by a microsatellite primer M13 from Fg complex isolates. This pair of primers was able to amplify a 380 bp fragment from all Fg complex isolates but not from any other tested fungal species. Using this pair of primers, a real-time PCR assay was developed to quantitatively detect small amounts of Fg complex in wheat seeds. This sensitive and quantitative detection assay could be useful in epidemiological studies and assessment of mycotoxin contamination in wheat seeds.