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if authors from nationalistic and non-nationalistic countries are randomly distributed, the positive and negative errors in the estimated regressions will cancel each other out. In addition, we will include country and year fixed effects to control

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defining sample sizes were avoided, due to the existence of complex and interactive relationships between factors that affect power ( Mathieu, Aguinis, Culpepper, & Chen, 2012 ). Considering fixed effects and cross-level interactions, studies using random

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Essay) . Acta Oeconomica , 61 ( 3 ): 281 – 291 . Nickell , S. ( 1981 ): Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects . Econometrica , 49 : 1417 – 1426

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Bas van Leeuwen, Aurelian-Petruş Plopeanu, and Peter Foldvari

– 147 . Powell , D. ( 2015 ): Quantile Regression with Nonadditive Fixed Effects . RAND Labor and Population Working Paper: 1 – 28 . http

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, Mächler, Bolker, & Walker, 2015 ) in order to account for the repeated measures. The LMEs included a random intercept for each participant in addition to the fixed effects, but no random slopes for participants. Distribution

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Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Fixed effects Random effects

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Julian Strizek, Josefine Atzendorf, Ludwig Kraus, Karin Monshouwer, Alexandra Puhm, and Alfred Uhl

. Next, predictors at the individual level (substance consumption) and at the macro-level (GDP) were included as fixed effects with random intercepts in order to estimate the direct associations between the predictors and the outcome measure without

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1995–2016 for 27 EU countries. 20 The literature is ambivalent with respect to using country fixed effects in the panel estimation, as the choice between adding or omitting fixed effects can be characterized by a trade-off. On the one hand, by applying

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consider the first enrollment demand with fixed-effects model, given by (1) and taking logarithms (2) where y it is the demand of region i in period t ; x it is a vector of dimension K of explanatory variables ( x it reports the observation of

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−: GDP growth rate Hajivassiliou (1987) Random effect 1970–1982, 79 developing countries +: Total debt service, import, growth rate of real GNP −: Real GNP per capita Menbere (2004) Random and Fixed Effects 1982

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