Authors:Viktória Szűcs, Zita Fazakas, AnaMaria Farr, and Monica Tarcea
[accessed: January 9, 2019]. [Hungarian]
MDOSZ. About celiac disease and gluten-free diet. [A cöliákiáról és
A Mark III DMTA (Polymer Laboratories, Loughborough, U.K.) was used to measure the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of a commercial cracker and its dough, each equilibrated to various water activities covering a range of 0.11–0.75 for the cracker and 0.11–0.90 for the cracker dough. DMTA measures the change in the elastic modulus (E′) and loss modulus (E″), as well as that in tanδ (E″/E′), with temperature. The change in the elastic modulus with temperature for the two systems followed a pattern similar to that found for complex food polymers (gluten, amylopectin), withTg decreasing as moisture content increased. Baking did not change the location of the glass transition curve (Tgvs. moisture content); i.e. the curves for raw dough and baked finished product were somewhat superimposable, and similar to the published gluten curve, indicating that for this type of cracker containing ∼5% sugars, the protein fraction is most responsible for theTg curve.
Authors:L. Tanács, J. Matuz, L. Gerő, and I. Petróczi
The wet gluten content, gluten spreading, baking value, technological water-absorbing ability and falling number of 4 wheat varieties were studied in a year with an average rainfall (2001) and two dry years (2002 and 2003). The wheat varieties were treated with different doses of NPK fertilizers and fungicides (Artea 330EC: 80 g/l cyproconazole + 250 g/l propiconazole, and Kolfugo 25WF: 250 g/l carbendazime).The highest fertilizer doses (120 kg/ha N + 60 kg/ha P + 60 kg/ha K, or 160 kg/ha N + 80 kg/ha P + 80 kg/ha K) significantly increased the wet gluten content of the 4 tested wheat varieties in all three years. The gluten spreading, the baking value, the water-absorbing ability and the falling number were not enhanced significantly by the fertilization. Both a higher dose of fertilizers and the use of fungicides tended to increase only the extent of gluten spreading and the baking value. A higher fertilizer dose and a dryer year did not affect the technological water-absorbing ability. The falling number tended to rise as the fertilization was increased. The effect of fungicidal treatment was not unambiguous: it sometimes decreased the falling number to under the upper standard limit (400 sec), i.e. it improved the quality.In the dry years, a significantly larger quantity of gluten, a greater extent of gluten spreading, a higher falling number and a better baking value were observed.
Authors:C. S. Raina, S. Singh, A. S. Bawa, and D. C. Saxena
Rice brokens were utilized in the development of pasta products. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of pre-gelatinized rice flour (from rice brokens), vital gluten, water, glycerol monostearate (GMS) and sodium alginate on the quality responses (sensory, cooking quality, rehydration ratio and solids loss) of the pasta product. A rotatable central-composite design was used to develop models for the responses. Responses were affected most by changes in rice flour and vital gluten levels and to a lesser extent by water, GMS and sodium alginate levels. The maximum sensory score (39.69), cooking quality (12.38), rehydration ratio (3.11) and minimum solids loss (15.64) were identified at 671.05 g kg-1rice flour, 242.40 g kg-1water, 74.70 g kg-1vital gluten, 2.14 g kg-1GMS and 9.71 g kg-1sodium alginate levels.
Three types of wheat were submitted to two different milling procedures, giving rise to six flours which differed by some physico-chemical characteristics such as particle size, level of damaged starch and protein content. Differential scanning calorimetry was used for monitoring heat-induced structural changes in flour aqueous dispersions 80% water and in doughs 45% water. Differences between the thermal behaviour of the flour dispersions and doughs were explained mainly by differences in protein content. This result was confirmed after partial substitution of flour by gluten. Dynamic mechanical analysis performed at 20°C on the flour doughs indicated, as expected, a linear increase in the elastic modulus with increasing protein content. The results did not bring any evidence that, under these experimental conditions, starch damage might affect gluten hydration.
In this study, the effects of 18 different additive formulas constituted with xanthan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) gums (hydrocolloids) were examined in the manufacture of corn starch based gluten-free bread. The additives used as alone or in combinations in the bread manufacture. It was also added with mono- and diglyceride based gel preparations and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides for improving glutenfree bread characteristics. The volumes and softness of the breads have been measured as maximum when HPMC was used alone in increasing order from 1 to 2%. While HPMC gum improved the volume and softness of bread more than Xanthan gum, Xanthan gum improved the grain structure of crumb more than HPMC. In general, these hydrocolloids gave a good quality of bread in terms of moisture content, grain structure and Neumann baking coefficient values, when they were used with combinations rather than being used individually. Addition of surfactant to all combinations always enhanced the grain structure of bread. In contrast, it either worsened or did not change the volume and softness of the bread.