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Chelidonii herba has long been known in herbal medicine for its choleretic, cholagogue, spasmolytic and antiviral activities. It is important to monitor the amount of mineral elements in Chelidonii herba preparations consumed mainly for their phytotherapeutical effects. In addition to organic compounds, dissoluble mineral elements in the teas and tinctures of herbs may also have a role in therapy. The concentration of 24 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti, V, Zn) in crude drugs (herb and root), in their aqueous solutions (infusion, decoction) and alcoholic extracts were studied by ICP-OES. The difference between the concentration of elements in extracts - except for copper, manganese and sodium - was highly significant. It has been found that the root contains higher concentrations of mineral elements except for boron, copper, phosphorus and sulphur. The infusion contained most elements in the highest concentration and proved to be the best source for obtaining minerals. The same tendency was observed in the case of dissolutions. In aqueous extracts, the dissolution of mineral elements was between 10% and 65% for most elements, especially for potassium (65%) and phosphorus (54%). The dissolution of mineral elements in the case of tinctures decreased with increasing alcohol concentration. It may be stated that the presence of macro- and microelements in extracts greatly contribute to their therapeutical value.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Zs. Hajdu, L. Lorántfy, N. Jedlinszki, K. Boros, J. Hohmann, and D. Csupor

The radish-like hypocotyls of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., Brassicaceae) are widely consumed as common vegetable in the Andean highlands. It is considered as healthy food, rich in carbohydrates and protein, a herbal medicine with a general invigorating reputation and fertility and sexual performance enhancer. The latter is the most popular contemporary application of the plant in Europe. The number and variety of industrial products on the market is increasing. Here we report the development of a simple and reliable analytical protocol for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of maca content of preparations and for the detection of synthetic phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Fourteen products were analysed by the method based on TLC and HPLC-DAD analysis developed by us. Our experiments revealed that beside good-quality products, the majority of the multicomponent preparations did not contain the declared herbal component or the quantity of the measured macamide was very low. Furthermore, one preparation is adulterated with a synthetic phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The presented method is suitable for quality control of L. meyenii products.

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A szerzők célja a hagyományos kínai orvoslás mibenlétének pontos meghatározása. A kínai orvoslásnak saját, jellegzetes ismeretrendszere van, ami alapvetően meghatározza a terápiás eljárásait (akupunktúra, manuálterápia és fitoterápia). A szerzők részletesen bemutatják a kínai orvoslás elméleti alapvetéseit: az emberi szervezet rendes és kóros jelenségeinek működési modellek alapján történő osztályozását és a nagyfokú terápiás individualizációt. A kínai orvoslás mai gyakorlatát a kínai modellen keresztül mutatják be, amelyben nagy hangsúlya van a modern medicina és a hagyományos kínai orvoslás integrációjának. A kínai orvoslás mai gyakorlata elképzelhetetlen a modern orvostudománnyal való ötvözés nélkül. Ezen alapelv áthatja a kínai orvoslást az oktatás, az ellátás és a kutatás területein is. Ha pontos válaszokat kívánunk kapni a kínai orvoslással kapcsolatos tudományos kérdésekre, akkor az első teendő a kínai orvoslás elméleti hátterének egzakt körvonalazása, valamint a kínai orvoslás alkalmazási lehetőségeinek kínai gyakorlaton keresztüli megismerése. Az ilyen alapvetések tisztázása nemcsak a tudományos kutatás, hanem a szakmai szabályozás szempontjából is hasznos lehet. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 723–731.

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Summary

Background: The fruits of Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogniaux, a ‘rasayana’ in ‘Ayurveda’, are enriched with several secondary metabolites, and rutin is one of them. Fruits are used for their anabolic, brain tonic, carminative, diuretic, memory enhancer, refrigerant, and vitalizer properties. Objective: In view of the fact that herbal medicines and/or products are facing challenges towards global acceptance due to the lack of universally accepted standardization method (s), the aim of the current investigation was to develop and validate a high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometry method for the quantification of rutin in the hydroalcoholic extracts of the fruit pulp of B. hispida (HABH). Materials and methods: The separation was achieved in a solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water at a ratio of 7.2:0.7:0.7:1.4 by volume on a TLC aluminum plate pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254. Quantifications were performed by densitometric scanning under a deuterium lamp at a wavelength of 268 nm in the absorbance mode. The precision, accuracy, and reproducibility of the HPTLC method were validated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Results: The mobile phase employed for HPTLC/TLC resulted in good separation for rutin (R F = 0.357). The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the analysis were found to be 0.1 and 0.3 µg per band, respectively. The rutin concentration in the HABH was found to be 178.28 ± 3.62 µg in 10 mg of the extract. Conclusion: The method developed here is simple, fast, reliable, and sensitive and can be implemented in the analysis and routine quality control of B. hispida formulations containing rutin.

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors: Amanda Fernandes de Medeiros, Maria Gabriela Ferreira Rocha, Alexandre Coelho Serquiz, Richele Janaína Araújo Machado, Vanessa Cristina Oliveira Lima, Fabiana Maria Coimbra de Carvalho, Izael de Sousa Costa, Bruna Leal Lima Maciel, Elizeu Antunes dos Santos, and Ana Heloneida de Araújo Morais

Trypsin inhibitors have been described in peanuts and their derived industrialized foods, demonstrating diversity and thermoresistance. Given their most varied applications, these enzymatic protease inhibitors have been isolated and characterized for their potential use as bioinsecticides, herbal medicines, or medicines, but it is not simple. There are still no reports in the literature of the isolation and characterization of trypsin inhibitors in cultivar cavalo rosa (CCR) peanut, a common variety in Brazil. However, there are biological activities related to trypsin inhibitors from peanut-derived products. In this study, we isolated and characterized a novel trypsin inhibitor in CCR peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) under different processing conditions using a simple improved isolation. Raw and toasted peanut inhibitor was isolated by ammonium sulfate fractionation and trypsin-cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose® 4B (CNBr-Sepharose® 4B) chromatography. The inhibitors from raw and toasted peanut were called AhTI1 and AhTI2, respectively, with potent anti-trypsin activity. Activity at different temperatures and pH was evaluated, and both samples were similarly stable under tested conditions. Minimum concentration for inhibition to occur (IC50) was 2.78 × 10−10 M and 2.39 × 10−10 M for AhTI1 and AhTI2, and inhibition constant (Ki) was 3.26 × 10−10 M and 1.54 × 10−10 M, respectively, showing non-competitive reversible kinetics. We concluded that AhTI1 and AhTI2 presented highly specific to trypsin and stable to toasting, different temperatures, and pH ranging. These are important characteristics in the process of developing bioinsecticides or biopharmaceuticals. Thus, this may be an interesting molecule, aiming at its biotechnological application, and it was obtained using a simple and easy isolation process.

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Absztrakt:

A gyógyászatban felhasznált, valamint táplálékkiegészítőként alkalmazott növényi eredetű készítményeknek, gyógyszereknek manapság még több mint a 90%-a a magasabb rendű hajtásos növényekből származik, ugyanakkor egymástól független körülmények miatt is egyre nagyobb figyelem irányul a különböző alacsonyabb szerveződésű, fotoszintetizáló algaszervezetek ilyen irányú alkalmazására. Az elmúlt 50 évben a szerkezetazonosító módszerek fejlődésével, az alga-tömegprodukciók, valamint a mesterséges alga termesztését (tenyésztését) lehetővé tévő technológiák előretörésével számos szénhidrát, peptid, terpenoid, alkaloid és fenoloid típusú komponens különböző biológiai aktivitással került leírásra algákból. Ezzel egyidejűleg részben tradicionális okokból, részben napjaink klinikai, preklinikai vizsgálataira alapozva néhány algafaj szárított terméke közvetlen felhasználásra kerül táplálékkiegészítőként, gyógyhatású készítményként. A továbbiakban áttekintjük az algák felhasználásának, alkalmazásának történeti hátterét, gazdasági jelentőségét, anyagcseréjük sajátosságait. A változatos metabolittermelést egyes algafajok néhány különleges hatással rendelkező molekuláinak jellemzésén keresztül mutatjuk be. A közvetlen felhasználással is bíró mikroalgák (Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp., Haematococcus sp., Dunaliella sp.) kapcsán hatóanyag-mintázatukat, ismert preklinikai és klinikai vizsgálatok eredményeit áttekintve ismertetjük azok alkalmazási területeit. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(18): 703–708.

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. Acta 2004 72 1787 1791 LaGow, B. (ed.) (2004): PDR for herbal medicines . — Thomson PDR

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, Published by the British Herbal Medicine Association, 4th edn, 1996, pp. 126–127. A. Chevallier , The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants, Dorling Kindersley, 1996, pp. 69. R

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J. Gruenwald , PDR for Herbal Medicines, Medical Economics Company, Montvale, NJ, 2000. Gruenwald J

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to Herbal Medicine. Revised edn, Don Bosco Training Centre, Akure, 2002, p. 207. Adodo A. Nature Power: A Christian Approach to Herbal Medicine

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