The triazene derivative of N-isopropylamphetamine XI, has been prepared in seven steps from amphetamine, as a new intermediate which is readily converted to N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine /XII/. XI makes now possible the simple, rapid and regiospecific synthesis of /125I/- or /123I/-XII direct before the application.
Gamma-irradiated at 77 K 1,4-dioxane and morpholine have been studied by ESR-spectroscopy. C-O bond dissociation is the main
process in the γ-radiolysis of 1,4-dioxane and a significant contribution of −CH−CH=O radicals to the experimental spectrum
is observed. Both H-atom abstraction and the cleavage of the ring seems to occur at low temperature γ-radiolysis of morpholine.
The paths of formation of intermediates in cyclic ethers γ-irradiated at 77 K are discussed.
Authors:N. El-Said, A. Mekhail, S. Khalifa, and H. Aly
Selective efficient method have been for separation of palladium by strong basic anion exchangers IRA-410 and IRA-900 from intermediate radioactive nitrate medium. The different conditions for exchange behaviour of palladium from [ILLW] solutions containing numbre of elements were investigated by batch technique. Selective recovery of palladium from the [ILLW] solution was achieved using column technique. The elution of palladium was carried out via reduction with formic acid where the rate of the reduction process was increased by decreasing the formic acid concentration till 50% followed by dissolving the separated palladium by nitric acid.
Authors:N. El-Said, A. Siliman, E. El-Sherif, and E. Borai
Separation of palladium by strongly basic anion exchangers IRA-110 and IRA-900 from intermediate radioactive liquid waste in chloroacetic acid/nitrate medium containing thirteen elements have been achieved. Different conditions have been studied, the effect of NaNO3 as salt content, chloroacetic acid and hydrogen ion concentration have been investigated. Selective recovery of palladium from the [ILLW] solution was achieved using the column technique. The selectivity increased by using chloroacetic acid/nitrate than in nitrate medium. The elution of palladium was carried out via reduction with formic acid where the rate of the reduction process was increased by decreasing the formic acid concentration till 50% followed by dissolving the separated palladium by nitric acid.
Authors:Eliane Temba, Aluísio Reis Júnior, Ângela Amaral, and Roberto Monteiro
A methodology for the determination of 90Sr in low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants is presented in this work. It is a part of
a methodology developed for the sequential radiochemical separation of radionuclides difficult-to-measure directly by gamma
spectrometry in these radioactive wastes. The separation procedure was carried out using precipitation and extraction chromatography
with Sr Resin, from Eichrom and the 90Sr was measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Optimum conditions for the pretreatment, separation and LSC measurements
were determined using simulated samples, which were prepared using standard solutions and carriers. The procedure showed to
be rapid and achieved a good chemical yield, in the range 60–90%, and a detection limit of 6.0 × 10−4 Bq g−1. The method was also tested by participation in a national intercomparison program, with aqueous samples, with good agreement
Authors:E. Andrade, M. Madruga, I. Bobos, M. Paiva, F. Maia, A. Mateus, R. Trindade, M. Freitas, and M. Gonçalves
Safety assessment of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repositories requires the understanding of radionuclides sorption–desorption
mechanisms, mainly the degree of interaction between radionuclides and mineral surfaces. Among the different radionuclides
that are part of the Portuguese radwastes’ inventory 137Cs is one of the most important from the radiological point of view due to its high radiotoxicity. The clay component of natural
geomaterials termed rañas, originated from an area located in the NE Mainland of Portugal, was studied for their potential as effective barriers. These
geomaterials (grains-size fractions <63 μm, <36 μm) were characterized in terms of cationic exchange capacity (CEC), frayed
edge sites (FES) and radiocaesium interception potential (RIP). Organic matter content and pH were also determined. The fractions
were mineralogically analyzed by X-ray diffraction and by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for chemical elemental
composition. Smectite (montmorilonite), illite, kaolinite were identified. The capacity of FES is related to the samples granulometry
as opposed to what was observed for CEC and RIP. The behavior of rañas was not similar for all samples which may be related to differences in mineralogy. Future studies with regard to the behaviour
of radiocaesium are expected to clarify the possible application of these geomaterials as liner/backfill/buffer for a LILW
Force generation in muscle during contraction arises from direct interaction of the two main protein components of the muscle,
myosin and actin. The process is driven by the energy liberated from the hydrolysis of ATP. In the presence of CaATP the energy
released from hydrolysis produces conformational changes in myosin and actin, which can be manifested as an internal motion
of myosin head while bound to actin. It is suggested that myosin heads attached to actin produce conformational changes during
the hydrolysis process of ATP, which results in a strain in the head portion of myosin in an ATP-dependent manner. These structural
changes lead to a large rotation of myosin neck region relieving the strain.
Paramagnetic probes and EPR spectroscopy provide direct method in which the rotation and orientation of specifically labelled
proteins can be followed during muscle activity. In order to find correlation between local and global structural changes
in the intermediate states of the ATPase cycle, the spectroscopic measurements were combined with DSC measurements that report
domain stability and interactions.
In the review a detailed description of the application of EPR and DSC techniques in muscle protein research will be given.
The measurements show that the small local structural changes detected by EPR after nucleotide binding influence the global
structure of protein system responsible for muscle contraction.
The zirconium isotope 93Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from 235U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope 92Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, 93Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement
of 93Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified
standards are not frequently available. A radiochemical procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with 1-(2-thenoyl)-3,3,3-trifluoroacetone
in xylene, ion exchange with Dowex resin and selective extraction using TRU resin has to be carried out in order to separate
zirconium from the matrix and to analyze it by liquid scintillation spectrometry technique (LSC). To set up the radiochemical
separation procedure for 93Zr, a tracer solution of 95Zr was used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the process by γ-ray spectrometry through measurement of the
95Zr. Then, the protocol was applied to low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) from nuclear power plants.
The efficiency detection for 63Ni was used to determination of 93Zr activity in the matrices analyzed. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq l−1 was obtained for 63Ni standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for OptiPhase HiSafe 3 cocktail.
Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) study on nine reactive dyes, seventeen fluorescent brighteners (nine of them are triazine-stilbene derivatives and eight — derivatives of 2-aminodimethylterephthalate), and their intermediates (twenty four in number), all of them containing 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine stabilizer fragment, was performed. These compounds were synthesized for simultaneously bleaching or coloration and stabilization of fabrics or polymers; some of them were able to copolymerize with appropriate monomers like acrylonitrile, methyl methacrylate, and acrylamide. The most suitable stationary and mobile phases for separation, ultraviolet (UV) light as detector, and TLC technique for detection were found. The TLC method was suitable and reliable for monitoring both the synthesis and the purity of the compounds.
Authors:Chang Lee, Myung Lee, Sun Han, Yeoung-Keong Ha, and Kyuseok-Song
A simple and rapid separation procedure was systemized for the determination of 99Tc, 90Sr, 94Nb, 55Fe and 59,63Ni in low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The integrated procedure involves precipitation, anion exchange and extraction
chromatography for the separation and purification of individual radionuclide from sample matrix elements and from other radionuclides.
After separating Re (as a surrogate of 99Tc) on an anion change resin column, Sr, Nb, Fe and Ni were sequentially separated as follows; Sr was separated as Sr (Ca-oxalate)
co-precipitates from Nb, Fe and Ni followed by purification using Sr-Spec extraction chromatographic resin. Nb was separated
from Fe and Ni by anion exchange chromatography. Fe was separated from Ni by anion exchange chromatography. Ni was separated
as Ni-dimethylglyoxime precipitates after the removal of 134,137Cs and 110mAg by Cs-phosphotungstate and AgCl precipitation, respectively. Finally, the radionuclide sources were prepared by precipitation
for their radioactivity measurements. The reliability of the procedure was evaluated by measuring the recovery of chemical
carriers added to a synthetic radioactive waste solution.