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The paper deals with the twofold role of the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania in inter-Slavonic, mainly Polish–Russian language contacts, based on the material of diplomatic correspondence of Muscovy. The author summarizes the research data proving that the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania played the role of an active mediator in the 15th–17th centuries in Polish–Russian language contacts and it was a source of lexical and semantic borrowings in the Russian written language and in the Polish written language. What is more, the paper examines anew some lexical borrowings from the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Chancery language of the 17th century as well as in the Polish language: golosovati / galasovati ‘cry, make a noise; make a hubbub’, navyklyj ‘accustomed to, habitual’ and futor / chutor ‘small settlement; khutor (separated farm)’.

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In the present period of the development of linguistic carpathology (a separate linguistic disciplin which studies reasons, development and result of Carpathian language contacts and interferences) the dialectological research and mainly the works of linguistic geography are considerably important. The most significant project of this sphere of research is the Carpathian Dialectological Atlas. During the preparation and realization of this macro-atlas the knowledge and experience acquired in the studies of Slovak dialectologists were involved in a considerable extent.

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Texts are the most reliable bases for investigating language contacts. The field of research for philology is the analysis and semantic processing of texts. The present study deals with the effects of Hungarian terminology on Croatian judiciary terminology in the 15th century based on the original Latin book of law and its contemporary Hungarian and Croatian translations. The corpus in this research contains words borrowed from Hungarian as well as calques and semantic loans created on the basis of Hungarian patterns. In addition, the study analyzes various attitudes behind certain phrases.

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Samu Czambel established his theoretical knowledge while studying with the most famous contemporary Slavists. He attended O. Asbóth’s lectures at the university in Pest, F. Mikosich’s and V. Jagić’s readings in Vienna, and M. Hattala’s lectures in Prague. After graduating he got work as a legal translator at the Hungarian Ministry of Home Affairs. He became perfectly bilingual and gained a practical attitude during his work that he went deeply into when collecting Slovak dialects in the country. In the centre of his interest was to define the place of the Slovak language within the Slavic language group. He considered important to research the Slovak–Hungarian as well as Hungarian–Slovak language contacts, especially the borrowing of words but – while studying phraseology – he also dealt with morphological and syntactic phenomena. He approached the phenomenon of bilingualism in a sensitive way, and he raised several problems when referring to the Middle Slovak language area and Palots dialects. These problems are to be cleared even today. Considering the importance of Slovak–Hungarian and Hungarian–Slovak language contacts, Samu Czambel formulated the need for a relatively big bilingual dictionary.

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Schmidt-Radefeldt, Jürgen: Anglicisms in Portuguese and Language Contact, English in Contact with Other Languages (eds. Viereck Wolfgang-Wolf-Dietrich Bald), Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1986, pp. 265-285 Anglicisms in Portuguese

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The subject of this article is language contact between Coptic and Arabic as reflected in the so-called “tautological infinitive”. The corpus is the bilingual (Coptic and Arabic) MS Paris BN copte 1, and the starting point is Ariel Shisha-Halevy’s observations on the matter based on this manuscript. Focus is on the Arabic text: The Arabic “inner object”, al-maf’ūl al-muṭlaq, generally parallels a prepositional phrase in Coptic in a ηєn-oγ- pattern. Sometimes, following the Coptic, the traditional word order in the Arabic is changed (such differences are generally documented earlier in Biblical texts). In other cases the translation choices were to create a stylistic change that does not reflect the tautological infinitive in the Coptic text. Contact language here (the tautological infinitive), as reflected by the Arabic translation, seems to be ‘quite convenient’ for the translator into Arabic, contrary to other cases where more variety of choices is offered.

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The paper gives a survey of the situation of Burgenland Croatian today. The Croats of the former Western Hungarian lands originate mostly from the 16th century. Their present number is approximately 20000 in Austria, and even smaller in Hungary and Slovakia. The Croats in Austria are bi-lingual, Croatian and German. Their literary language is a Čakavian, ikavian-ekavian variety of Croatian, which has been written since the 17th century. Efforts to standardize the language have resulted in dictionaries and a grammar recently. Language contacts between Burgenland Croatian on the one hand, and Standard Croatian, German, and Hungarian on the other are described. Language policy is not very much in favour of the Croats. Nevertheless have they achieved better presence in the mass media during the last years. The linguistic usage of bi-lingual individuals differs according to age, sex, and profession. Bi-lingual instruction is conducted in a small number of schools only.

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This paper describes the underlying phonological and morphological properties of the Mursko Središće dialect in the context of its relations with other dialects of Međimurje and with dialects of the neighbouring Slovenian territories. This dialect belongs to the Upper subdialect of the Međimurje region. It is characterized by a large number of diphthongs, open e and open o in positions where we would normally expect a closed e and closed o. Also visible is the tendency of reflecting the old rear nasal *o as a, which has already been confirmed in the Croatian–Slovenian language contact in some dialects in Istria and Hrvatsko Zagorje. Morphology is mostly characterized by syncretism of dative, locative, and instrumental endings -aj in the declension of nouns and adjectives. The paper also gives examples for the pseudo-analogonymy between the dialects of Mursko Središće, Prelog, and Beltinci in Prekmurje.

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On the basis of Pleteršnik's dictionary and dialectal lexical material collected in his native village of Beltince, Franc Novak compiled a dictionary containing about 8,000 entries. His work was later completed and edited by Vilko Novak. This dialectal dictionary includes a significant number of Hungarian loanwords, lexical elements transferred into the Beltince dialect through Hungarian as an intermediary language, as well as loan translations and words based on a Hungarian model. The present paper describes this lexical material, also discussing problems of phonetic and morphological adaptation these transferred elements undergo. The population of the Porabje region in Slovenia has lived in the natural neighbourhood of Hungarians for centuries. The Beltince dictionary yields a linguistic documentation for this coexistence, contributing not only to research in Slovenian dialectology but also Hungarian-Slovenian language contacts.

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Neohelicon
Authors: Britta Benert and Christine Hélot

Abstract  

This article proposes a critical reading of two narratives written by the well-known author Tomi Ungerer and an analysis of their multiple versions in three languages, French, English and German. In the first case, the text is an autobiography of the author’s childhood during the Second World War. Written first in French, three subsequent versions were produced by the author in German, English and French again for a children’s book publisher. In the case of the second text, written and illustrated by the author, the original language is unclear but the French and German versions are very close. The English version, on the contrary is surprisingly moralistic. Our analysis of the different approaches to translation invite a reflexion on the notions of ethnocentricism, alterity and identity, as well as on language contact and hybridity.

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