Wall calendars had become an important part of regal representation by the end of the 17th century. The French monarchs, German ecclesiastic and secular prince-electors, and councils of imperial cities ordered wall calendars, mainly from famous Augsburg engravers, decorated with important events and successes of the previous year. The three wall calendars of Leopold I that have survived in the Berlin leaflet collection are impressive representations of the important period shifts in Leopold I's regal representation. The first calendar was made for the year 1661. The print shows the imperial predecessors of Leopold I, stressing his legitimacy by demonstrating how important emperors of the Holy Roman Empire came from the house of Habsburg. The wall calendar is an organic part of the peculiar propaganda campaign that emerged in connection with the 1658 election of Leopold I as emperor and in which the prince-electors emphasised their political predominance within the Holy Roman Empire. The second calendar sheet was made for the year 1686, calling attention to the great successes achieved in the anti-Turk war during 1685, putting the emperor's person in the centre. The emperor occurs in the characteristic accessories of the court as a victorious Roman war-lord and emperor. Although the victories of Venice over the Turks were also recorded on the print, Leopold is represented as the victor of the holy was against the Turks, suggesting the divine origin of the victories. The third sheet is a summary of Emperor Leopold's reign, as it was made for the year following his death, 1706. In this print of 50 small emblems, Emperor Leopold figures against Louis XIV as “the other sun” in Europe's sky. This propaganda publication, made probably with the Jesuits' cooperation, represents the Habsburg Empire as the most important European power, the victor in the Habsburg–French conflict that spanned the time of Leopold's reign. The Augsburg-made print attests not only to the state-theoretical erudition and high-quality political learning of its makers but also to their profound knowledge of the natural sciences and their receptivity to scientific innovations.
Sultanic Legitimacy in the Sixteenth Century Ottoman Empire: The Ahlâk-ı Alâ’î of Kınalızâde Ali Çelebi (1510–1572)
. Unpublished M.A. thesis. Princeton University.
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Polish Route (Warsaw: IFiS Publishers, 1992), 204-205, and Jack Bielasiak and Barbara Hicks, "Solidarity's self-Organization, the crisis of rationality and legitimacy in Poland," East European Politics and Societies 4:3 (Fall 1990): 489
Gutas, Dimitri (1998):
Greek Thought, Arab Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad & Early Abbasid Society (2nd–4th & 8th–10th)
Hagen, Gottfried (2004): Legitimacy and World