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is evidently a more carbon efficient and greener synthesis than the traditional one. Direct oxidation of benzene to phenol using oxygen [ 1 ] or hydrogen peroxide [ 2 ] was attempted to achieve this ambitious goal. In the open literature

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) supports by adapting a method described in the literature for related systems [ 21 ]. The HRP-support systems were separated by centrifugation, washed carefully and gently dried by evaporation at 40 °C. The samples resulted were noted as shown in Table 2

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the reaction mechanism of toluene hydrogenation with a rate-determining step, while other steps are considered in quasi-state equilibrium, are extensively described in the literature [ 3 , 9 , 11 – 16 ]. Generally, these laws differ according to

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carbons [ 24 – 26 ], resin [ 27 – 29 ], showed the best catalytic characteristics. The mechanism of these systems has not been explained unequivocally yet. The one which is the most frequently discussed in the literature is the bifunctional mechanism

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radiation, 40 kV, 30 mA). Reducibility was measured by temperature programmed reduction (H 2 -TPR) experiment using an apparatus setting found in the literature elsewhere [ 14 ]. In a typical H 2 -TPR experiment, a catalyst sample of about 30 mg was heated

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were performed with a Shimadzu UV-2550 spectrophotometer. Synthesis of tris(1,10)-phenanthroline iron(II) With reference to the literature [ 23 ], a modified method was adopted to synthesize tris(1,10)-phenanthroline

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− /Al- x wt%Ce–Zn–O solid acid catalysts has not been reported in the literature. This study was aimed to provide some valuable information on the application of S 2 O 8 2− /Al- x wt%Ce–Zn–O solid acid catalysts in the esterification reaction. The

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Cleanio L. Lima, Hélvio S. A. de Sousa, Santiago J. S. Vasconcelos, Josué M. Filho, Alcemira C. Oliveira, Francisco F. de Sousa, and Alcineia C. Oliveira

2 O 3 , clays and molecular sieves with sulfate ions gives rise to strong acid solids [ 2 , 5 ]. When zeolites are considered, a variety of techniques has been reported in the literature focused on the way to introduce SO 4 2− ions onto the zeolite

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formulas describe the esterification with n -nonyl alcohol and n -undecyl alcohol. Kinetic data concerning the synthesis of phthalates have not been found in literature. There are kinetic investigations of Skrzypek et al. [ 3 , 4 ] on the esterification

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of DBT seems to be more sensitive to the Co/(Co + Mo) ratio in the catalyst than the HDS rate of BT. Similar results were reported in the literature [ 13 – 15 ]. Molybdenum interacts with hydroxyl groups on the alumina carrier surface

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