Globalisation is a fundamental and much discussed phenomenon of our days' economic development. This paper discusses its consequences in manufacturing, using the example of the Hungarian economy, where multinationals and other foreign companies play a key role. First the general nature of globalisation and its effects in Hungary are discussed. Then data from two international surveys are used to characterise manufacturing practice, comparing three groups of companies: multinationals, other foreign-owned and local companies. The consequences illustrate the important role of multinationals in bringing new technologies and managerial techniques to the country, giving an example for beneficial effects of globalisation.
It was my initial assumption that the quality of governance and management, i.e. the leadership concept of the local authorities has a determinant role in increasing the competitiveness of the region. In my research, the increase of the competitiveness of the region was in focus. I did not consider competitiveness to be only a performance, but a managerial and organizational skill which basically develops competitiveness. For this reason, this study describes the leadership examination carried out at the local authorities of the region.
A szerző négy évtizedes klinikai és vezetői gyakorlata birtokában elemzi az elmúlt évtized szülészeti trendjeinek változását. Rámutat azokra a pontokra, ahol a legjelentősebb szakmai előrehaladás történt (terhesgondozás, új szakmai irányelvek, integrált ellátás). A cikk kitér a prevenció és korszerű diagnosztika elveire. Végül a szerző összefoglalja a szülészeti ellátás és terhesgondozás strukturális és funkcionális átszervezésének indokait. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 1087–1091.
Opposing to technological determinism, more socio-technical approaches have emerged in the second half of the 20
century. One significant perspective is the social construction of technology (SCOT).However, besides its advantages, SCOT also has deficiencies. Many of them are discussed and answered in the literature but in this article two important aspects will be presented which have not been sufficiently elaborated in SCOT. First, light is shed on interpretative flexibility from a social cognitive approach. Here, technological frames are presented as support our understanding, but also other theories are suggested.Second, metaphors are presented as palpable images of interpretation. It is demonstrated how metaphors are used to understand complex phenomena like organisations or information systems. It is claimed that they are also suitable managerial tools to influence human actions through interpretations. Finally, three possible ways of further research are highlighted.
A „virtuális”, „virtualitás” fogalmának jelentései. „Virtuális valóság” alkalmazások az iparban, kibertér a mindennapi életben az internet révén. A virtualitás tágabb értelmezése: digitális tömegmédia, internet, web 2.0. A tér és az idő relativizálódása, globalizáció, „új gazdaság”, hálózati társadalom. A munka és a szervezetek világának átalakulása: rugalmasság, a foglalkoztatás új formái, „portfólió vállalat”. A virtuális együttműködés kulcsfontosságú sikertényezői: az infokommunikációs technika megfelelő használata, bizalom a teamtagok és vezetőjük között, a kulturális különbségek áthidalása. A távolból irányító vezető előtt álló kihívások: erőforrások biztosítása, a célok teljesítésén alapuló kontrollmechanizmus kiépítése, motiválás és a csoportdinamikai problémák (pl. személyközi konfliktusok) kezelése. Folyamatosság és megszakítottság a vezetési funkciókban és a vezetői szerepekben, összehasonlítva a hagyományos menedzsmentet a virtuálissal.
The article reports results from a four-wave international longitudinal study “Paths of a Generation”representative of young adults in Estonia and Latvia. We looked especially at individual and structural factors predicting success and failure in these transitional societies taken together. We conceptualised success and failure as success group (or status group) membership. By doing so we attempted to capture different channels of “winning”(e.g., entrepreneurial activity or taking managerial positions) and “losing”(e.g., unemployment or employment in the primary sector of economy). The new social stratification structure in those societies is in the stage of formation. On the one hand, it is still influenced by the communist legacy; on the other hand, hierarchies typical for Western market economies are taking shape. Male gender, longer education career and belonging to the titular nation are among major predictors of success. Success group membership, especially being an entrepreneur, is also predicted by high self-evaluation and ambitions recorded as the respondents were 17 years old, as well as by early economic activity. The “losers”among young adults are generally less educated; they tend to have more children, live in smaller settlements and belong to the non-titular nation. Failure is predicted mainly by objective personal characteristics and not by subjective self-evaluation or life plans.
The food industry is in the crossfire of increasing pressure of competition, consumer demands, and growing importance of ecological sustainability considerations. Life cycle analysis is one of the most important methods for evaluation of environmental effects of food industrial technologies and packaging systems. During the last decades there have been an intense work to collect pieces of information on different environmental aspects of food packaging systems all over the world, but there is a considerable gap between the amount of knowledge and its practical application in decision making on the level of enterprises as well as in the process of determination of environmental protection fee. Application of modern, freely available software frameworks for life cycle analysis offers a favourable possibility for integration of environmental information into managerial and governmental decision making processes. Based on case studies, the article demonstrates the possibilities of utilisation of cumulative environmental burden indicators as well as expert decision-support systems for optimisation of product-portfolio, based on environmental considerations.
The present study’s primary objective is to identify contributing factors in selecting and evaluating a seafood supplier within the Taiwanese hospitality industry. It illustrates the application of a multicriteria decision-making process to supplier selection within a service setting where it is less common than in a manufacturing context. To implement the study, a survey instrument was created and submitted to Taiwanese hospitality firms, namely hotels and restaurants, to identify contributing factors in the selection of a seafood supplier within six initial areas concerning food hygiene, stafftraining, crisis management, information technology, competitive ability, and logistics and quality assurance. The analytic hierarchical process (AHP) was then applied to the survey results, and the first- and second-level hierarchical factors were rigorously identified and ranked. These can be regarded as useful benchmarks in identifying and ranking the selection and evaluation of a food supplier within the industry. The present study enhances the understanding of supplier selection in the hospitality industry and provides insights which hospitality firms can apply in managing their supply chains. The managerial and research implications of these findings are discussed.
The enhancement of economic development and living standard in last years has the people stress more on recreational life that tourism becomes prevalent in Taiwan. County and city governments positively promote tourism and hold cultural festivals to enhance the boom of accommodation and catering industries and further fire national tourism market and catering industry.
Through online questionnaire survey, the customers of Wang Steak, TASTy, Tokiya, and ikki, which are the subsidiaries of Wowprime and burst out the oil scandal recently, are distributed 800 copies of questionnaires. Total 388 effective copies are retrieved with the effective rate 49%. The research results are concluded as follows. 1. Crisis Communication Strategies would affect Media Report. 2. Crisis Communication Strategies would influence Corporate Image. 3. Media Report has significantly positive effects on Managerial Capacity in Corporate Image. 4. Media Report presents remarkably positive effects on Corporate Reputation in Corporate Image. 5. Media Report shows notably positive effects on Communication News in Corporate Image. It is expected that catering businesses could enhance the countermeasures of Crisis Communication Strategies to cope with crises.