, Leda and João Veloso . 2016 . Phonological processes affecting vowels: Neutralization, harmony and nasalization . In W. L. Wetzels , S. Menuzzi and J. Costa (eds.) The handbook of Portuguese linguistics . Malden, MA & Oxford : Wiley
This paper deals with some specific features of Croatian dialects in Hungary. Some phonological features that are found in those dialects will be considered, especially those that were not confirmed in the same relations, or were not confirmed in other Croatian dialects at all.
and Latin phonology is investigated in a selection of inscriptions chielfly containing the Ave Maria prayer, excerpted from the Samnordisk Runtextdatabas : 2 Lat. /e/ in stressed and unstressed position; Lat. /d/ and /t/ in initial, intervocalic
innovative aspect of our corpus is the linguistic analysis of the tokens, which focuses on the graphemic/phonological aspects of the language. The deviant spellings, i.e. spellings which do not conform to the Classical norms, were manually retrieved and
The codification of the Rusyn language in Slovakia in 1995 created space for linguistic research into individual language levels not only within Rusyn dialects, as was the case in the past (Olaf Broch, Ivan Verchratskij, Georgij Gerovskij, and Vasiľ Latta), but also regarding the actual codified language used by Rusyns in Slovakia. Based on earlier results and the research of Vasiľ Jabur (one of the codifiers of the Rusyn language in Slovakia, who determined the system of vocalic sounds in standard Rusyn), in this paper, the authors present vocalic sounds and their variations in individual phonological realizations.
The Croatian language, comprising huge differences considering the number of its speakers, being very important for the reconstruction of a Slavic proto-language (Čakavian accentuation), has become the object of dialectological research early. It has been included in the Slavic Linguistic Atlas (OLA) and in the European Linguistic Atlas (ALE). It was included in the Serbo-Croatian Dialectological Atlas, which was abandoned. In 1996, the Croatian Language Atlas (Hrvatski jezični atlas – HJA) was established by M. Lončarić at the Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics in Zagreb, with expected 400 research points (in Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina and diaspora). The fieldwork was planned to be finished in 6–8 years but the unsufficient funding made the dynamics of the project much slower. Currently, about three-quarters of the expected points have been researched: all the Čakavian ones, while one-fifth of the Kajkavian and one-third of the Štokavian ones remain. For the Čakavian points, phonological descriptions have been made, on a model similar to OLA phonological descriptions, and they are currently in print. The paper provides an overview of research in Hungary, especially in its Western part, in particular the results of a recent study of the Štoji dialects.
Peak shift is a universal result of most discrimination learning: if an organism is taught to respond to one stimulus and not to respond to another stimulus lying along the same perceptual continuum, it shows maximal responsiveness not to the target stimulus but to a stimulus displaced along the continuum in a direction away from the unreinforced stimulus. It also responds more vigorously to the displaced stimulus than it would have to the target stimulus had discrimination training not occurred. This is the phenomenon of behavioral contrast. On the level of preference, peak shift means that if we prefer something, we shall like something a bit more extreme even more. Peak shift and behavioral contrast are probably the most important causes of sound change in language, but this has never been pointed out. The relevance of peak shift and behavioral contrast to phonological change is explained. Their most general consequence is that the phonetic realization of phonemes is usually in a continual state of evolution; because learners systematically overshoot the phonetic realization they are being taught. How peak shift could have caused the Great English Vowel Shift and the changes subsumed by Grimm's Law is explained. Both of these effects involved chains of phonemes that differed in frequency of occurrence along a gradient. In such cases, peak shift and behavioral contrast very quickly bring about massive changes in pronunciation that can affect virtually every word in a language.