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Abstract

Water availability is one of the major physiological factors influencing plant growth and development. An assessment study has been done at the Szent István University, Gödöllő to evaluate and identify the water footprint of protein yield of field crop species. Twelve field crop species (Sugar beet Beta vulgaris, spring and winter barley Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat Triticum aestivum, maize Zea mays, sunflower Helianthus annuus, peas Pisum sativum, potato Solanum tuberosum, alfalfa Medicago sativa, oilseed rape Brassica napus, rye Secale cereale and oats Avena sativa) were involved in the study. Evapotranspiration patterns of the crops studied have been identified by the regular agroclimatology methodology and physiologically reliable protein ranges within crop yields were evaluated.

The results obtained suggest, that water footprint of cereals proved to be the lowest, however maize values were highly affected by the high variability of protein yield. Oilseed crops had considerably high protein yield with medium water efficiency. Alfalfa, potato and sugar beet water footprints were in accordance with their evapotranspiration patterns.

Protein based water footprint assessment seems to be more applicable in crop species evaluations than that of yield based methodologies.

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The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced under greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P?0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P<0.01); ASA at higher concentrations (250 and 500 ppm), generally, caused a decrease on pigment amounts (P<0.05-P<0.01) but 100 ppm ASA had no considerably significant influence on them (P?0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P?0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P?0.05), however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P<0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs, depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations.

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Wang, L., Licheng, H. (1995): Breeding for new spring soybean cultivar Heinong 35 with high protein content and high yield and problems on soybean breeding for dwarf and other mutants. Sci. Agr. Sinica , 28 , 38

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84 201 218 Ceapoiu, N., Ittu, G., Oproiu, E. 1974. Ereditatea conţinutului şi calitaţii proteinelor la grâu [Heredity of protein content and quality

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Wang, J-M., Zhang, G-P. and Chen, J.X. (2001). Cultivar and environmental effects on protein content and grain weight of malting barley. Journal of the Zhejiang University (Agriculture and Life Sciences) 27: 503

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The unfavourable effects of climate change were studied in terms of changes in the stress tolerance of cereals. The yield and physiological parameters of two winter wheat genotypes (Mv Mambó, Mv Regiment) were analysed in the phytotron after water was completely withheld for 7 or 14 days in three phenophases. The plants were raised in climate chambers, one adjusted to ambient CO2 concentration and the other to a higher level (750 μmol mol−1). The aim of the present work was to determine the correlations between the duration of water withholding and the phenological, physiological and yield parameters of winter wheat. It was hoped to identify how elevated CO2 levels affected the stress sensitivity of plants and whether they contributed to counteracting the damaging effects of drought. In both varieties, the grain mass decreased to the greatest extent when water was withheld at first node appearance (5.9–71.3%). A longer period of drought at first node appearance and grain filling only reduced the grain number and mass in the case of enhanced CO2. The yield and physiological parameters of Mv Regiment, however, deteriorated substantially as a result of water deficiency, though this variety was better able to utilise surplus CO2, giving outstanding results at elevated CO2 level.

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Izsáki, Z. (1999): A nitrogén és foszfor ellátottság hatása néhány szántóföldi kultúra fehérjetartalmára és aminosav összetételére. (Effect of N and P supplies on protein content and amino acid composition of some field crops.) In: Ruzsányi, L., Pepó, P

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–124. Cyran, M., Bona, L., Boros, D., Hajós, G. 2002. Dietary fiber composition, viscosity and protein content of winter and spring cereals. In: Arseniuk, E. (ed.), Proc. 5th Int. Triticale Symp., International Triticale Association, Radzikow, Poland, pp. 438

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