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Temperament has not been taken into account in previous studies evaluating the stress response to exercise in horses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cortisol response in Thoroughbred racehorses to a single exercise bout, and to analyse the results based on the basic personality of the horse examined. Twenty healthy Thoroughbred horses were selected for the study based on a 25-item rating questionnaire survey used for characterising equine temperament. Eight temperamental and twelve calm horses took part in the experiment. The horses trotted as a warm-up activity, and then galloped on a rounded sand track. Blood sampling was conducted four times for each horse. Horses with a more excitable temperament showed a higher cortisol response to the test (P = 0.036). In conclusion, cortisol levels in response to a mild intensive exercise can be affected by temperament in horses. Serum cortisol may be a relevant marker to quantify individual temperamental differences in racehorses.

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Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Julianna Lipták-Váradi, Márta Széll, János Szabó, Andrea Szabó, Melinda Vanya, Lilla Kató, and Károly Szili

. Analysis and Applications in Environmental Engineering 1970 Monica Frontczak et al.: Questionnaire survey on factors

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This paper addresses scientists’ behaviour regarding the patenting of knowledge produced in universities and other public sector research organisations (PSROs). Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in patenting and licensing activities by PSROs. We argue that the whole process depends to a certain extent on scientists’ willingness to disclose their inventions. Given this assumption, we conduct research into individual behaviour in order to understand scientists’ views concerning the patenting of their research results. Data from a questionnaire survey of Portuguese researchers from nine PSROs in life sciences and biotechnology is presented and analysed and complemented with in-depth interviews. The results reveal that overall the scientists surveyed show a low propensity to become involved in patenting and licensing activities, despite the fact that the majority had no “ethical” objections to the disclosure of their inventions and the commercial exploitation of these. Perceptions about the impacts of these activities on certain fundamental aspects of knowledge production and dissemination are however divergent. This may account for the low participation levels. Furthermore, most scientists perceived the personal benefits deriving from this type of activity to be low. Similarly, the majority also believed that there are many difficulties associated with the patenting process and that they receive limited support from their organisations, which lack the proper competences and structures to assist with patenting and licensing.

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In this study the competitiveness of Hungarian enterprises was analyzed, because relatively little research has been conducted to investigate small enterprises. More specifically, the paper examines to what extent the use of online solutions gives companies a competitive advantage. Nearly 800 companies were involved in the research, for which a new methodology was used. It is built on a multi-step model, which is based on mathematical calculations. From the result of a questionnaire survey, variables were generated to create a number of competitiveness pillars, which were used to determine the final competitiveness index of each company. The research was carried out at the Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Pécs. Scientists form the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs were involved in the online analysis of the companies, the results of which were integrated into the research findings. The analysis shows that the companies, which do not use online solutions during their operations can be competitive but generally those present in the online space are more competitive, and use more sophisticated solutions in their business processes, which has a positive effect on several functions of the company. Overall these companies have a higher competitiveness index, which confirms that it is worth using online solutions for companies.

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Foreign competition in domestic markets is still strengthening and for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) internationalization may be one way to deal with this growing rivalry. Pangarkar (2008) states that for SMEs the benefits of internationalization outweigh its disadvantages and that with the increasing degree of involvement in the internationalization process the performance of SMEs also improves. However, for SMEs from some sectors of our economy, involvement in internationalization is more complex than for large enterprises; moreover, they are often inclined to enter foreign markets due to different motives. The authors carried out several surveys among Czech SMEs during the last three years and found that SMEs from some sectors of the Czech economy mentioned the EU accession of the Czech Republic as their motive for internationalization. The aim of this paper is to find out whether EU membership represents the determining factor of the SMEs’ decision to get involved in internationalization, and what its advantages or disadvantages are as perceived by SMEs in connection with their international activities. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of primary data obtained from Czech SMEs through electronic questionnaire surveys.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Andrea Lukács, Péter Sasvári, Beatrix Varga, and Krisztina Mayer

Background and aims

This study examines exercise addiction (EA) in amateur runners from a multidimensional approach, including demographics (age, sex, educational attainment, and financial situation), training factors (duration of running activity, weekly time spent running, mean workout distance per session, other sports activities, and childhood physical activity), psychological features (perceived health, life satisfaction, loneliness, stress, anxiety, depression, body shape, and eating disorders), and anthropometrics (body mass index) that might predict EA.


The well-validated Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS) was applied to evaluate the prevalence of EA in amateur runners. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to find explanatory variables of risk of EA using the SPSS 24.0 statistical software.


A total of 257 runners (48.9% females, M age = 40.49, SD = 8.99 years) with at least 2 years running activity participated in an anonymous questionnaire survey. About 53.6% of respondents were characterized as non-dependent symptomatic and 37.8% as non-dependent asymptomatic. About 8.6% had prevalence of being at risk of EA. The logistic regression model displayed five variables that significantly predicted the risk of EA: (a) anxiety, (b) loneliness, (c) weekly time spent running, (d) childhood physical activity, and (e) education level.

Discussion and conclusions

Findings indicate that loneliness and anxiety may lead to withdrawal and uncontrolled behavior that in turn leads to increased amount of exercise in amateur runners. Lower level of education attainment is also a likely risk of EA development, and childhood sports activity is a predictor.

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A duális képzésben részt vevő hallgatók gyakorlati kompetenciáinak mérési és értékelési lehetőségei

Opportunities for Measurement and Evaluation Practical Competencies in Dual Study Programs

Authors: Anita Kozák, Julianna Csugány, and Tamás Tánczos


A versenyszféra által támasztott gyakorlatorientált felsőoktatás iránti igény hívta életre hazánkban is a duális formában zajló képzéseket. Jelen tanulmány célja a duális képzésben részt vevő hallgatók gyakorlati kompetenciáinak mérésére és értékelésére irányuló felmérés koncepcionális kereteinek felvázolása, mely az Eszterházy Károly Egyetemen duális képzési formában is választható 12 szakon tanuló hallgatók körében kerül megvalósításra. A kompetenciamérést a felsőoktatási intézmény a gyakorlóhelyekkel együttműködve végzi el kérdőíves felmérés, értékelő központ és tereptanári értékelés alapján.

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Fitness industry is an important segment of sports economy worldwide. The number of registered members in fitness clubs has shown a slow, but steady increase. The key objective of our research is to look into the fitness sector in terms of both the demand and supply sides, from the aspect of the fitness providers, as well as of fitness consumers using these services. We are aspiring to explore the training session attendance-related habits of consumers in the Hungarian fitness sector and investigate the factors, features influencing the attendance of the specific trainers’ sessions. Our research focuses on fitness trainers and leisure-time sportspeople who attend gym sessions and therefore the sample may only include people who meet these parameters. As our primary research method, we used interviews and questionnaire survey among fitness trainers and consumers. We asked a total of 753 leisure-time sportspeople and 261 trainers. Our research covers the study of training habits of fitness consumers and a personality analysis of fitness trainers. We think our research results support our fundamental hypothesis that the competitiveness of gyms could be improved by gathering informations on the consumers training habits and selecting the proper experts (trainers).

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The enhancement of economic development and living standard in last years has the people stress more on recreational life that tourism becomes prevalent in Taiwan. County and city governments positively promote tourism and hold cultural festivals to enhance the boom of accommodation and catering industries and further fire national tourism market and catering industry.

Through online questionnaire survey, the customers of Wang Steak, TASTy, Tokiya, and ikki, which are the subsidiaries of Wowprime and burst out the oil scandal recently, are distributed 800 copies of questionnaires. Total 388 effective copies are retrieved with the effective rate 49%. The research results are concluded as follows. 1. Crisis Communication Strategies would affect Media Report. 2. Crisis Communication Strategies would influence Corporate Image. 3. Media Report has significantly positive effects on Managerial Capacity in Corporate Image. 4. Media Report presents remarkably positive effects on Corporate Reputation in Corporate Image. 5. Media Report shows notably positive effects on Communication News in Corporate Image. It is expected that catering businesses could enhance the countermeasures of Crisis Communication Strategies to cope with crises.

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The impact of financial crisis has resulted in the global economic depression. It is merely cultural industry that acts in a diametrically opposite way so businesses related to cultural industry are still growing. For this reason, this study tends to explore the innovation activities in cultural parks in Taiwan, from the aspect of cultural value. Nevertheless, research on cultural parks in Taiwan still focuses on architecture design and reuse of space; studies on Service Innovation are rather few. This study therefore aims to discuss Service Innovation in cultural parks themselves. With questionnaire survey, the data are further analyzed and discussed. The research findings show 1. significantly positive correlations between Service Innovation and Product Price in Customer Satisfaction, 2. partially positive correlations between Service Innovation and Service Efficiency in Customer Satisfaction, 3. remarkably positive correlations between Service Innovation and Perceived Value in Customer Satisfaction, and 4. notable effects of Customer Characteristics on the correlations between Service Innovation and Customer Satisfaction. The research results are expected to be the reference and contribution to cultural park managers.

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