‘institutional deadlock’ is established, it must act to remove such deadlocks. The Court derived its obligation from the ruleoflaw provision of the Constitution 18 arguing that one of the conditions for the fulfilling of the state’s fundamental objectives (the
Sustainability, as compared to the ruleoflaw, human rights, sovereignty or democracy, is a relatively new constitutional key concept. 2 It is mentioned explicitly more and more in constitutional discourses, and – even more importantly – it helps
We tested the hypothesis of the political basis for economic rights and constructed our own variables of political regimes’ classification for the years 1820–2000. We found significant positive interdependencies between democracy indicators and economic growth. The protection of private property rights requires, first and foremost, due guarantees for personal immunity. Discretionary arrests and property seizures undermine any formal guarantees of private property, low taxation benefits, etc. Personal immunity should be defended even for “unpleasant” persons or for the possible political opponents of the country’s ruler.
The preambles are used in the Czech legal system during the last twenty years rather rarely. Nonetheless, constitutions in the Czechoslovak history as in the Czech history are traditionally introduced by the preambles. As the Czech constitutional system inclines to consist of more constitutional legal acts at the supreme level of the interior legal system, we can found two constitutional preambles in the recent Czech constitutional system. Both top constitutional acts-the Constitution and the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms are preceded by their own preamble. The preambles differ as they are focused on different part of constitutional issues. Despite of this obvious fact they are built-up on some features, which are common to both of them. The preambles are characterized by a modest form-their purpose is to explain, why the new chapter of the legal development is opened, and to offer us a common starting line. Nonetheless, they also keep to us a freedom of movement in the new legal period. Their main goal is to connect the people, not to divide, if the constitutional act, which is introduced by them, should be an expression of the common national will.
Az eutanázia passzív formája csaknem minden civilizált országban törvényes. Az eutanázia aktív formája azonban nem általánosan elfogadott intézmény. Európában az aktív eutanázia csak Hollandiában, Belgiumban, Luxemburgban és Svájcban legális. Ausztráliában az 1995. évi, a terminális állapotban lévő személyek jogairól szóló törvény legalizálta az asszisztált öngyilkosságot, de ezt 1997-ben hatályon kívül helyezték. Az asszisztált öngyilkosság nem azonos az aktív eutanáziával, mivel törvényes aktív eutanázia esetén az emberölés elkövetője az, aki nem büntethető, míg asszisztált öngyilkosság esetén az öngyilkosságban való közreműködés elkövetője a nem büntethető személy. Az aktív eutanázia esetén emberölést hajtanak végre a betegen annak kérésére. Asszisztált öngyilkosság esetén a beteg hajtja végre az öngyilkossági cselekményt (egészségügyi segítséggel). Az asszisztált öngyilkosság az Amerikai Egyesült Államok négy tagállamában legális: Vermontban, Washingtonban, Montanában és Oregonban. Uruguayban az eutanázia aktív változata 1932 óta nem büntethető. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(32), 1259–1264.
The study deals with theoretical questions of the Hungarian privatization law. It clarifies the differences between the economic and legal concept of privatization, the various interpretations of privatization. The Hungarian privatization was the earliest and at the same time-after the German-the quickest completed privatization in the former socialist countries. It reviews the so-called spontaneous privatization between 1988–1990, and the privatization legislature of 1992 and 1995 as well. As a conclusion the study deals with the evaluation of the privatization law, and with the consequences of privatization with regards to social politics.
This study examines the determinant of non-life insurance consumption in 14 countries of Central and South-Eastern Europe between 1995 and 2010 within a vector error correction model (VECM). We use non-life insurance penetration as a measure for non-life insurance consumption. Empirical results provide evidence that the number of dwellings and number of passenger cars positively and significantly influence non-life insurance consumption in the long run, while the existence of the rule of law and EU membership are significant in the short run.
This paper discusses problems related to the incorporation of constitutional rule of law into a pluralistic legal system, primarily in post-communist Hungary. Normative pluralism was characteristic of state socialism. Is this pluralism going to shape the emerging constitution-driven law of post-communism? The paper concludes that although constitutional universalism brought a new dimension to law and in principle has helped to promote the centrality of law in the competitive world of normative orderings, it may in the long run remain an elitist tool, fundamentally ignored or circumvented by sub-legal forms of social interaction.
The principle of fair administration of justice requires that formal restrictions on initiating procedures before courts correspond to the right to access to a court. Based on the rule of law-Community law shall ensure that its provisions on the administration of justice are in accord with the fundamental law requirements established in Community law. The provisions on intervention before Community courts contain certain restraints on access to a court that are worth scrutinising on a fundamental right basis. The aim of the paper is threefold. First, it wishes to recover the jurisprudence of Community courts interpreting the conditions of intervention. Second, it attempts to reveal the jurisprudence of the Strasbourg and Luxembourg courts on access to justice with respect to formal restrictions. Third, it essays to implement the access to court test on the restraints of access to justice in intervention.