The author discusses globalisation form multiple perspectives. He emphasises that globalisation certainly reduces poverty in absolute sense while increases poverty in a relative sense. There are important risks inherent in the process of globalisation, which include hyper-competition, treat to the social rights of citizens, and rendering a lot of people economically irrelevant. To cure the deficiencies of globalisation Professor Zamagni favours cosmopolitical democracy and transnationalcivil society, which might be able to safeguard cultural diversity, social justice and peace.
Linear correlations between burnup, Pu/U- and U5/U0-ratios on the one hand and154Eu/137Cs or134Cs/137Cs ratios on the other hand have been proved to exist in the case of spent WWER fuel. The possibility of using such correlations
for safeguards to determine the235U and Pu content of fuel assemblies has been demonstrated. The results agree well with theoretical calculations using the
COFIP and COHN codes.
Hungary ratified Protocol No. 13 to the European Convention for the Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms concerning the abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances. This event is not a surprise since the Hungarian Constitutional Court declared capital punishment unconstitutional in 1990. Retrospectively, the development of the safeguards against capital punishment in Hungary might seem as a stretch of self-evident consequences. The present paper attempts to situate the decision of the Constitutional Court in its broader context and reflect upon the significance of symbolic founding gestures in times of democratic transition.
An advanced neutron activation technique has been developed for the accurate analysis of elemental and isotopic fissile material required in nuclear safeguards, nuclear material standardization and other applications. It is based on reactor neutron flux spectrum differentiation by cadmium screening and multistandard calibration, including the solution of a second order equation system or of computerized calibration curve fitting, taking into account the thermal neutron flux depression. Some discrepancies at high enrichments have still to be eliminated in order to achieve the required measurement accuracy.
Residual inventory of nuclear materials remaining in processing facilities (holdup) in recognized as an insidious problem for safety of plat operations and safeguarding of special nuclear materials (SNM). This paper reports on an experimental study where a well-known method of radioanalytical chemistry, namely tracer technique, was successfully used to improve nondestructive measurements of holdup of nuclear materials in a variety of plant equipment. Such controlled measurements can improve the sensitivity of measurements of residual inventories of nuclear materials in process equipment by several orders of magnitude and the good quality data obtained lend themselves to developing mathematical models of holdup of SNM during stable plant operations.
This paper has been prepared in the hope of giving new insights into the case of C-446/03 Marks & Spencer. The author tries to explore the process of communication in the light of the legal autopoiesis theory, the final result of which is the judgment. Reading it, one can find plain arguments both for the effective protection of EC freedoms, including the freedom of establishment, one the one hand, and for stopping regulatory and tax competition, and safeguarding the national interests of Member States, on the other one. The methodology of legal autopoiesis may be useful in better understanding of the message the judgment has negotiated.
Authors:M. Koskelo, W. Sielaff, M. Charland, and H. Roberts
Decommissioning and decontamination work, safeguards related measurements for special nuclear materials, and many other in-situ
applications require that the measuring system be taken to the sample and not the other way around. In addition to a portable
detector, these types of measurements need a lightweight, rugged, battery operated MCA. Canberra's solution to this need is
the versatile InSpector Multi-Channel Analyzer. This single instrument includes the MCA memory management, a high voltage
power supply for either a NaI or a Ge detector, a spectroscopy grade amplifier, a digital stabilizer, and an ADC. It has a
total weight of 3,2 kg, including batteries.
Minimizing plutonium measurement uncertainty is essential to nuclear material control and international safeguards. In 2005,
the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published ISO 12183 “Controlled-potential coulometric assay of plutonium,”
2nd edition. ISO 12183:2005 recommends a target of ±0.01% for the mass of original sample in the aliquot because it is a critical
assay variable. Mass measurements in radiological containment were evaluated and uncertainties estimated. The uncertainty
estimate for the mass measurement also includes uncertainty in correcting for buoyancy effects from air acting as a fluid
and from decreased pressure of heated air from the specific heat of the plutonium isotopes.
Authors:Zsolt Varga, Maria Wallenius, Klaus Mayer, and Erich Hrnecek
A novel method has been developed for the determination of the production date (age) of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes).
The methodology is based on the measurement of trace-level 232Th and its daughter nuclide, 228Th and their variation over time. The proposed method offers a complementary dating tool to the commonly used 230Th/234U technique, which is applicable, however, only for highly purified materials. Applying the present method it is possible
to determine precisely the production date of uranium samples with incomplete separation of their daughter products, such
as yellow cakes, other intermediate products or scrap materials for nuclear forensics and safeguards purposes.
The analysis of impurities in uranium matrices is performed in a variety of fields, e.g., for quality control in the production
stream converting uranium ores to fuels, as element signatures in nuclear forensics and safeguards, and for non-proliferation
control. We have investigated the capabilities of time-of-flight ICP-MS for the analysis of impurities in uranium matrices
using a matrix-matched method. The method was applied to the New Brunswick Laboratory CRM 124(1–7) series. For the seven certified
reference materials, an overall precision and accuracy of approximately 5% and 14%, respectively, were obtained for 18 analyzed