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Abstract  

The measurement of textual patent similarities is crucial for important tasks in patent management, be it prior art analysis, infringement analysis, or patent mapping. In this paper the common theory of similarity measurement is applied to the field of patents, using solitary concepts as basic textual elements of patents. After unfolding the term ‘similarity’ in a content and formal oriented level and presenting a basic model of understanding, a segmented approach to the measurement of underlying variables, similarity coefficients, and the criteria-related profiles of their combinations is lined out. This leads to a guided way to the application of textual patent similarities, interesting both for theory and practice.

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The aim of this paper was to find possible link between molecular and morphological similarities of 38 Hungarian white grape varieties. Three aspects of morphological and molecular similarity were assessed in the study: comparison of the ordered variety pairs, assessment of molecular and morphological mean similarity differences and separation of varieties into similar groups by divisive cluster analysis to define (DIANA). Molecular similarity was calculated from binary data based on allele sizes obtained in DNA analysis. DNA fingerprints were determined at 9 SSR loci recommended by the European GrapeGen06 project. Morphological similarity was calculated on the basis of quantitative morphological descriptors. Morphological and molecular similarity values were ordered and categorized after pairwise comparison. Overall correlation was found to be weak but case by case assessment of the variety pairs confirmed some coincidence of molecular and morphological similarity. General similarity position of each variety was characterized by Mean Similarity Index (MSI). It was calculated as the mean of n-1 pair similarity values of the variety concerned. Varieties were ordered and compared by the difference of the index. Five varieties had low morphological and high molecular MSI meaning that they share several SSR marker alleles with the others but seems relatively distinct according to the expression of their morphological traits. Divisive cluster analysis was carried out to find similar groups. Eight and twelve cluster solutions proved to be sufficient to distinct varieties. Morphological and molecular similarity groups partly coincided according to the results. Several clusters reflected parent offspring relations but molecular clustering gave more realistic results concerning pedigree.

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Abstract  

This paper investigates the utility of the Inclusion Index, the Jaccard Index and the Cosine Index for calculating similarities of documents, as used for mapping science and technology. It is shown that, provided that the same content is searched across various documents, the Inclusion Index generally delivers more exact results, in particular when computing the degree of similarity based on citation data. In addition, various methodologies such as co-word analysis, Subject-Action-Object (SAO) structures, bibliographic coupling, co-citation analysis, and self-citation links are compared. We find that the two former ones tend to describe rather semantic similarities that differ from knowledge flows as expressed by the citation-based methodologies.

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Similarity between seed bank and aboveground vegetation is frequently studied in order to better understand how community composition is affected by factors such as disturbance and succession. Grassland plant communities are known to be sensitive to shifts in precipitation and increases in temperature associated with climate change, but we do not know if and how these factors interact to affect the similarity between seed bank and aboveground vegetation. Also unknown is how the impact of grazing, the dominant land-use in grasslands, will interact with climatic conditions to affect similarity. We manipulated precipitation and temperature, and cut vegetation (as a proxy for grazing) at a grassland site for three years. Percent cover of aboveground vegetation was estimated in the third year, and compared with persistent seed bank samples taken in the year prior from the same plots. Similarity increased with reduced precipitation, was unresponsive to warming, and decreased with clipping. The aboveground community responded strongly to the treatments, while the seed bank community did less so, suggesting similarity responses were largely driven by changes in aboveground vegetation. Because of the importance of the seed bank in vegetation regeneration, understanding the relationship between seed bank and aboveground vegetation will improve our understanding of plant community dynamics under climate change and varied management (grazing) intensities.

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Similarities and differences in the immune systems of plants and animals are discussed in relation to non-specific and specific immunity (resistance), systemic acquired resistance (immune memory), transgenerational immune memory and gene silencing. Furthermore, we attempt to answer the question “what is inhibiting or killing pathogens during the immune (resistance) process”? Therefore, the possible roles of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in pathogen inhibition are evaluated in different types of plant disease resistance.

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The aim of this paper is to discuss both similarities and differences in selected judicial books. Legal terminology and functional vocabulary will be analysed on the basis of words from a Crimean judicial book. Subsequently, books from different regions of the Ottoman Empire will be analysed with regard to their presence. Judicial books are registries which were written in Ottoman Turkish in judicial offices. This publication is an attempt at answering the following questions: Were the words and formulae used in the records similar? Are the names of objects the same? Was the language of the local population reflected in the court records?

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Similarity indices are often used for measuring b-diversity and as the starting point of multivariate analysis. In this study, I used simulation to examine the direction and amount of bias in estimates of two similarity indices, Jaccard Coefficient (J) and incidence-based J (J^). I design a novel simulation to generate three sets of assemblages that vary in species richness, species-occurrence distributions, and b-diversity. I characterized assemblage differences with the ratio of [proportion of rare species in all shared species / proportion of rare species in all unshared species] (i.e., PR ss/PR us) and the Pearson’s correlation in the probabilities of shared species between two assemblages (i.e., share-species correlation). I found that J was subject to strong positive or negative bias, depending on PR ss/PR us. J^ was mainly subject to negative bias, which varied with share-species correlation. In both indices, bias varied substantially from one pair of assemblages to another and among datasets. The high variation in the bias across different comparisons of assemblages may compromise b-diversity estimation established at low sampling efforts based on the two indices or their variants.

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Abstract

The Mesozoic stratigraphic record of northern Eurasia includes a total of 1,739 formations. The proportion of conglomerate, sandstone + siltstone, shale, carbonates, evaporites, siliceous rocks, and volcanics + volcaniclastics among sedimentary complexes are evaluated for each epoch of the Mesozoic. Sandstone, shale, and conglomerate occur in 86%, 71%, and 42% of formations respectively. Less common are carbonates (28%) and volcanics and volcaniclastics (24%), whereas evaporites and siliceous rocks are rare (< 5%). The proportion of particular sedimentary rock types fluctuates throughout the Mesozoic. The proportion of sandstone + siltstone changes quite similarly to that of shale. A comparison of stratigraphic data from northern Eurasia and North America reveals some similarities, including a Lower Triassic increase in the conglomerate proportion, a Middle-Upper Triassic increase in the proportion of siliceous rocks, Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic and Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous “clastic spikes”, and a Middle-Upper Jurassic “carbonate-evaporite spike”. They may reflect any global-scale processes. Increases in clastic deposition coincided with eustatic lowstands, whereas voluminous accumulation of carbonates and evaporites tended to coincide with global sea-level rises. It remains unclear whether global climate was responsible for changes in the proportion of sedimentary rock types.

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We have examined the community structure indices (species richness, dominance, diversity and similarity) of the rove beetles (Staphylinidae) assemblages in three differently treated apple orchards in Hungary.During the survey, a total number of 728 specimens belonging to 73 species were collected with pitfall traps. The dominant species were Omalium caesum, Drusilla canaliculata, Dexiogyia corticina, Mocyta orbata and Styloxys insecatus .Out of the differently treated orchards, the staphylinid abundance was the higher in the abandoned than in the conventionally treated and in integrated pest management orchards.The diversity profile of the communities showed that there were no differences between the diversity of the conventionally treated and abandoned orchards, and both were significantly more diverse than the IPM orchard. The similarity indices indicated that the forming dominance of the species was also influenced by the treatment. The distribution of the dominant species in each pitfall trap used in each plot shows the insecticide tolerance of the species

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Community structure (species richness, dominance, similarity, diversity and seasonal dynamics) of the rove beetles (Staphylinidae) was examined in an abandoned, a conventional and an organic vineyard management plot of an experimental vineyard in Hungary.During the survey, a total number of 493 specimens belonging to 33 species were collected by pitfall traps. The dominant species were Sphenoma togata, Xantholinus linearis and Pseudocypus penetrans that presented 76.66% of all staphylinids collected in the vineyard. All of the most common staphylinid species had only one generation per year and overwintered as adults.There were significant differences in species richness and abundance; both were the highest in the abandoned plot. The dissimilarity in species composition between the differently treated plots was also high. The diversity was the highest in organic, and the lowest in conventionally treated plot, while the abandoned one showed an intermediate value.

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