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Implementation of sourdough technology would increase nutritional value and attractiveness of gluten-free bread. However, fermentation process requires stimulation. The course of fermentation of gluten-free sourdoughs prepared from maize and soy flours and maize and potato starches, enriched in glucose and casein hydrolysate or soy sprouted seeds used as fermentation enhancers was evaluated. The clearest effect of the supplementation was observed in the case of sourdough prepared from starches only. The addition of glucose in the amounts as low as 0.5% has proved to be enough to enhance fermentation effectively. Supplementation of the sourdoughs with peptides was not very effective; however, when used together with glucose, a synergistic effect could be detected. The addition of sprouted seeds allowed to shorten the fermentation process with up to several hours. These studies have demonstrated possibility to simplify and shorten the process of gluten-free sourdough fermentation by modification of mixtures composition.

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In the sub-tropical regions of India, the 1st to 3rd week of November is the optimum time for sowing wheat. A delay in sowing due to various factors causes a substantial yield reduction. Seeds of four wheat varieties (Sonak, UP 2338, Raj 3765 and PBW 343) were subjected to seed priming treatments involving water, salts, growth regulator and the sowing of sprouted seed under late-sown conditions during the winter seasons of 1998-99 and 1999-2000. The sowing of sprouted seeds resulted in significantly more rapid emergence of seedlings, accompanied by higher grain and straw yields. Seeds primed with IAA, KCl, water, ZnSO4 and Na2SO4 followed in this order. The lowest seedling emergence and grain yield were obtained for unprimed seeds. Seedling emergence was higher in the variety Sonak, while Raj 3765 and UP 2338 had higher leaf water, osmotic and turgor potentials during the 1998-99 season. The variety PBW 343 produced significantly higher grain and straw yields in the 1999-2000 season.

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The occurrence of damaged grains was studied in 12 barley genotypes in a three-year period. The occurrence of grains with physiological split of lemma and endosperm was generally low. Split of palea and endosperm was mostly affected by the genotype (10%) and it was recorded most frequently in the genotype Heris. Incomplete overlapping of husks was also markedly affected by the genotype (10%) and it occurred most frequently in the genotype Scarlett. Sprouted grains and grains of green color occurred minimally. Black points were affected by year (21%) and genotype (15%). This damage was most frequently reported for the genotypes Camera and Jersey. Surprisingly, the occurrence of grains with apparently moldy husks was markedly affected by the genotype (25%), less substantially by the location (10%) and minimally by year (3%).

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Influence of MH and carbendazim application in preventing loss of onion bulbs during storage was assessed in two varieties. Individual treatment of 2,000 ppm MH reduced the percentage of rotting, fungal infection and sprouting to a greater extent in variety 'N-53'. The preharvest treatment appeared more effective than the postharvest in this variety. In case of 'Local White' also a similar trend was observed but the response obtained in general was not promising. Preharvest treatment with carbendazim significantly reduced the rotting and fungal infection in both the varieties during storage. However a combined application of carbendazim and MH (1,000 ppm and 2,000 ppm, respectively) exhibited better results as compared to the individual treatments in both the varieties.

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Summary  

By probing Doppler broadened line-shapes of prompt γ -ray at 478 keV emitted from moving 7*Li produced via the 10B(n, γ)7*Li reaction, matrix materials containing and/or surrounding boron species were non-destructively characterized for several growing stages of soybean. It was elucidated that boron is in the form close to each other for both the dry seeds for planting and the dry seeds harvested, while it was revealed that boron exists in an aqueous solution for the two stages of growing, swelling seeds with a bourgeon and a greenish sprout. This work is the first biological application of Doppler broadening of neutron induced prompt γ -rays.

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Calamagrostis epigejos produces a large amount of litter in patches dominated by this expansive species in degraded meadows. Two studies were carried out in the area of the Central Sudetes Mountains (SW Poland). The goals of these surveys were to address the following questions: How do active manipulations regarding the removal of necromass and C. epigejos tillers, as well as seeding of additional species, influence the meadow species seedling recruitment? How is the organic matter decomposed in the consecutive stages of mountain grassland degradation caused by C. epigejos expansion? How do environmental factors influence litter decomposition? The results of the research showed a significant influence of C. epigejos necromass on the recruitment of mesic meadow species. The influence is connected with the emergence of a mechanical barrier to seedlings, which impedes their sprouting. No relation was found between the degradation stage and the rate of necromass decomposition. The study showed the influence of some environmental factors on the rate of necromass decomposition – in the case of C. epigejos there was a negative impact of exchangeable magnesium forms, whereas in the case of mixed meadow plant litter there was a positive effect of nitrogen and C:N ratio, and negative correlations with Ellenberg’s light and soil humidity indices.

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Abstract  

During the last decade or so, the literary writings that portray the lives of the wolves and their relationship with the humans sprouted and prospered in China. These wolf writings all give very vivid and appealing portraits of wolves, their wild existence, their character, their relationship with men, and their role in the ecosystem. They have shaped our understanding of and attitudes towards animals and nature, which is of great value to the ongoing building of ecological civilization in China as well as in the world. In general, the Chinese wolf literature has inevitably been influenced and inspired by the long and rich traditions of the wolf myths and literature in the West, particularly those works of Jack London, Rudyard Kipling and other Western writers since the end of the 19th century. With due attention paid to the influence of the Western wolf literature, this essay will mainly analyze the three most important Chinese wolf novels—The Wolf Child, Remembering Wolves and The Wolf Totem, both separately and with reference to one another. It argues that the representations of wolves in them subvert the stereotypical hostile images of wolf in traditional Chinese culture, bring about fresh reflections on the cultural and spiritual symptoms of (post)modernity and globalization, and finally lead to a growing ecological consciousness and the call for balance between humans and nonhumans.

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A field experiment was conducted during the summerseason of 2000-2001 at IARI, New Delhi using the onion cultivar Pusa Madhvi to identify a suitable Azotobacter strain and nitrogen level combination(s) for better yield and quality of onion. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of four levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50 and 75% recommended doses) and three Azotobacter strains (CBD-15, AS-4 and M-4) with two uninoculated controls, one with the full dose of N and the other without NPK. The results revealed that the application of 75% recommended N dose along with inoculation with CBD-15 or M-4 significantly increased the marketable yield and the nitrogen content in both leaves and bulbs, over the control with the full dose of nitrogen, whereas only 75% recommended N + CBD-15 led to a significantly increased total yield. Total soluble solids (TSS) and neck thickness were significantly reduced by the application of 50% recommended N dose along with inoculation with CBD-15 or M-4 compared with the uninoculated control with the full N dose. Inoculation with any of the Azotobacter strains along with 50 or 75% recommended N dose significantly reduced the sprouting loss during storage, while inoculation significantly reduced rotting and total losses when combined with 50 or 25% recommended N doses.

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Seed germination is a new beginning for the crop life cycle, which is closely related to seed sprouting and subsequent plant growth and development, and ultimately affects grain yield and quality. Salt stress is one of the most important abiotic stress factors that restrict crop production. Therefore, it is highly important to improve crop salt tolerance and sufficient utilization of saline-alkali land. In this study, we identified the phosphorylated proteins involved in salt stress response by combining SEM, 2-DE, Pro-Q Diamond staining and tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that salt stress significantly inhibited seed germination and starch degradation. In total, 14 phosphorylated protein spots (11 unique proteins) in the embryo and 6 phosphorylated protein spots (4 unique proteins) in the endosperm were identified, which mainly involved in stress/defense, protein metabolism and energy metabolism. The phosphorylation of some proteins such as cold regulated proteins, 27K protein, EF-1β and superoxide dismutase could play important roles in salt stress tolerance.

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An indigenous food mixture was developed by mixing rice flour, whey, sprouted green gram paste and tomato pulp (2:1:1:1, w/w) and was coded as RWGT. The mixture was autoclaved (1.5 kg cm-2, 15 min, 121 °C), cooled and inoculated with 2% liquid culture (containing 106cells ml-1broth). Two types of fermentations were carried out, single culture fermentation [L. casei, L. plantarum (37 °C, 24 h)] and sequential culture fermentation [S. boulardii (25 °C, 24 h)] + L. casei (37 °C, 24 h); S. boulardii (25 °C, 24 h) + L. plantarum (37 °C, 24 h)]. Single culture fermentations caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in the total soluble sugars (51-54%), non-reducing sugars (73-78%) and starch content (41-43%). Sequential culture fermentations decreased the total available carbohydrates by 62-64%. All the fermentations significantly (P<0.05) improved the HCl-extractability of minerals viz. iron (54-67%), calcium (22-32%), sodium (25-30%) and potassium (17-24%).

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