The influence of a food-grade long-chain polyphosphate mixture on the growth and survival of spoilage micro-organisms during storage in an experimental processed cheese spread formulation was evaluated. The emulsifying salt was added to the cheese blend at a concentration of 0.5% or 1.0%. A control product was also manufactured, which contained monophosphate instead of polyphosphate as emulsifying salt, with all other ingredients being identical to those in the experimental processed cheese spread. Half of the finished products were subjected to accelerated shelf-life testing at 37 °C for 10 days, whereas the other half of them was stored refrigerated at 4 °C for 120 days. Microbiological analyses (enumeration of viable cell counts, mesophilic sulphite-reducing clostridia, coliforms, yeasts and moulds) and sensory tests were performed at regular intervals. The results showed that polyphosphates had a beneficial effect on the shelf-life of the processed cheese spread tested in that they significantly reduced (P<0.05) the growth or survival rates of spoilage bacteria, especially of mesophilic sulphite-reducing clostridia. Polyphosphates also beneficially influenced the sensory, including textural properties of the experimental processed cheese spread. All the samples containing less than 1% polyphosphate showed signs of butyric blowing significantly earlier (P<0.05), during both accelerated shelf-life tests and regular refrigerated storage, than did the products fortified with 1% polyphosphate. In conclusion, the suitability of the long-chain polyphosphate formulation tested for shelf life extension of processed cheese spreads was demonstrated.
Authors:O. Velasco-González, S. Echavarría-Almeida, A. Pajarito, and E. San Martín-Martinez
The textural properties and hydration capacity of legumes in general and of beans in particular is a subject about which much research has been done. However, at present there is still no practical answer to the “Hard to Shell” and “Hard to Cook” effects. The present investigation studies 14 varieties of recently picked beans that were grown in Mexico. The beans were classified by size using K-means multivariate analysis, and three fractions were obtained for each variety: large (L), medium (M) and small (S). These fractions were evaluated for hardness, water absorption rate and total water absorption. It was found that the small bean fraction of the varieties studied had the lowest hardness values in comparison to the medium and large fractions. This same behaviour was observed for the water absorption rate and total water absorption; the smaller beans absorbed water more quickly and had greater total water absorption than the other fractions. One kind of bean (Pinto Villa) proved to be much harder than the other varieties. The total water absorption increased and hardness decreased for beans with greater ash content, but no correlation was found between these two properties (water absorption and hardness) for protein and fiber content.
Authors:J. Azizi, D. Dollimore, P. Dollimore, G. Heal, P. Manley, W. Kneller, and W. Jin Yong
In this study a relationship between the surface and textural properties of carbon blacks and the gasification process induced
thermally in air is noted. A temperature jump method was used to follow the gasification in air and to establish the relevant
Arrhenius parameters. This can be associated with the activity of ‘basal’ plane carbon atoms as well as ‘edge’ carbon atoms
at the surface. This is based on a model of carbon black structure consisting of the irregular packing of small graphite carbon
structures. The carbon black surface was measured using a single measurement of adsorption based essentially on the BET volumetric
method. The carbon black surface had a rate of oxidation per unit are which clearly indicated that the lower area carbon blacks
had a predominately active area of ‘edge’ atoms at the surface while the surface of the higher area carbon blacks had a predominate
amount of ‘basal’ plane graphite carbon atoms.
Authors:G. Ivanov, A. Bogdanova, and G. Zsivanovits
. , Roohinejad , S. , Totosaus , A. , Mirhosseini , H. , Shuhaimi , M. , Meimandipour , A. , Omidizadeh , A. and Abd-Manap , M.Y. ( 2012 ). Optimization of texturalproperties and formulation of reduced fat Cheddar cheeses containing fat replacers
Authors:V. Piližota, M. Kopjar, N. Županić, and N. Balija
Kopjar, M., Piližota, V., Nedić Tiban, N., Šubarić, D., Babić, J. & Ačkar, Đ. (2007): Effect of different pectin addition and its concentration on colour and texturalproperties of raspberry jam. Dt. Lebensm.-Rundsch. , 103 , 164