Treatment of barley grain with gibberellic acid (GA3) during malting promotes abnormal proteolysis and rapid rootlets growth affecting malt quality. This study investigated the potential of ethylene treatment as an alternative by comparing the amylase activity, total starch and total reducing sugars of germinating ‘Puma’ barley seeds treated with ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP), GA3, daminozide (B-nine), GA3 + 1-MCP, ethylene + B-nine and the control after 24, 48 and 72 h from soaking. Ethylene had no effect on amylase activity. B-nine reduced amylase activity by 16 and 9.6% compared to the control after 48 and 72 h, respectively. The amylase activity of ethylene + B-nine treated seeds was higher (13.3 and 4%) than B-nine treated seeds after 48 and 72 h. This suggest that endogenous GA is important for normal amylase activity and, ethylene stimulates amylase activity where GA synthesis is inhibited. Ethylene and GA3 treatments reduced starch (83.3 mg g−1 and 76.7 mg g−1, respectively) and increased reducing sugars (16.0 and 17.1 µg ml−1, respectively) compared to the control (115.3 mg g−1 starch and 12.1 µg ml−1 reducing sugars) after 72 h. It was concluded that, ethylene may replace GA3 treatment without interfering with starch changing processes during barley malting.
Authors:Elham Khataee, Farah Karimi, and Khadijeh Razavi
transduction chain and accumulation of valuable TIAs in C. roseus ( Van Moerkercke et al., 2015 ).
The separate impacts of putrescine and MJ on amounts of TIA’s production have already been studied, but the effects of joint treatment on the expression
The downside of plant tissue culture techniques is an unwanted microbial contamination. Elimination of contaminants is the first step of any successful investigation on plant tissue culture. Preliminary experiments on Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca (Norfolk-Island pine) (syn.: A. heterophylla) showed that most common decontaminants could not successfully eliminate the contamination. Therefore, nano silver (NS) colloids were evaluated for controlling contamination. Treatments were included soaking the explants in NS solution or adding NS to the culture medium. Explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with appropriate growth regulators for their establishment. Results showed that surface sterilization followed by treatment with 200 mg l−1 of NS with soaking time of 180 min reduced the bacterial contamination from 61.5% to 11.3% and adding 400 mg l−1 NS to the medium reduced the bacterial contamination from 81.25% to 18.75%. Nano silver could be applied without adverse effects on plant growth and development. This is the first report on in vitro establishment of A. excelsa R. Br. using NS to reduce bacterial infections.
The aim of the work was to analyse the compostable properties of bone powder produced via different treatment methods and industrial conditions, and to study their effect on plant growth and phosphorus uptake. The bones were treated in water with different temperatures, bone-water ratios and treatment times. Further treatment was carried out with citric, nitric and sulphuric acid with different concentrations, temperatures, bone-water ratios and treatment times. Industrial bone powder was composted under model industrial conditions.The available phosphorus content of these materials was estimated using ryegrass (
) as indicator plant in a climatic chamber.The water-soluble phosphorus content of the bones increased in the citric acid and sulphuric acid treatment, depending on the water treatment conditions and the acid concentration. This increase amounted to about 30 times (0.32–8.51 mg/100 mg) compared to the water treatment.The results of the plant test demonstrated that the phophorus content of treated bone powder and compost was readily available to plants. The phosphorus content of the compost was available over a longer period.
Based on the results of earlier greenhouse tests, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of three different herbicide combinations (clomazone, flumioxazine and pendimethaline combined with bentazone) at increasing nitrogen levels on the nitrogen uptake of green pea and common lambsquarters (
L.). Nitrogen was administered to the pea plants in the form of ammonium nitrate at increasing levels: 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg/ha. The experimental soil was loamy Ramann’s brown forest soil (Eutric Cambisol). Green peas were grown to green maturity and harvested according to standard agricultural practices. Following harvest, the fresh and dry weight of the pea and weed shoots were recorded. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents were determined from dried plant samples after digestion with concentrated sulphuric acid.The main results can be summarized as followsThe addition of nitrogen to the treatments considerably altered the growing potential of pea plants, especially at the early growth stage, where an increase in dry biomass of nearly 30% was observed. Yield biomass decreased in the nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen concentration, which increased in every treatment, was directly correlated to the addition of nitrogen fertilizer. Herbicides mainly influenced the vegetative growth of the plants. Pendimethalin and flumioxazin indirectly caused an increase in the dry biomass of the shoots by killing the surrounding weeds.