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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: N. Ando, S. Tasaki, Y. Hato, C. Marumo, Y. Natsume, S. Ohmori, A. Ito, and K. Tanaka

Abstract  

The polyacenic semiconductive (PAS) material is a typical amorphous carbon prepared by pyrolysis of phenolformaldehyde resin, and is actually utilized as anode of high-capacity rechargeable batteries. In this work, change in the discharging amount of Li+ before and after heat-treatment of the PAS electrodes at the various doping level was examined in detail. As a result, the doped Li can be classified into two types: (i) heat-resistant Li-dopant (or Li-dopant with high diffusion coefficient) and (ii)heat-fragile Li-dopant (or Li-dopant with low diffusion coefficient). The latter Li-dopants are generated above the doping level of 30% ([Li]/[C]→0.3) and is considered to be the origin of high-capacity of PAS anode compared with that of graphite anode. This aspect is also supported by the ESR, 7Li-NMR, and XPS observation results.

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Abstract  

The mechanics of thermally-activated gaseous diffusion in polymers have long been studied for development of theoretical understanding of the interactive forces responsible for the non-linear nature of diffusion and the resultant enthalpic changes in the polymer. Methodologies and calculations have been developed in this work for treatment of experimental data for elimination of thickness-related anomalies in water vapor diffusion and for delineation of pressure effects. Linearized data for different polymer thicknesses and the attendant internal thermal effects have been generated by using calculated single molecule diffusion values. Equally linear data are obtained for different pressures by the use of a graphical method from which identical diffusion values are obtained, independent of material thickness and external pressure. True comparisons and classification of polymers as to their diffusivities are thus possible for development of barrier materials for food and drug packaging and for protective encapsulation of electronic devices. Results will be reported for three structurally different polymers.

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Abstract  

Mössbauer effect was used for the characterization of the radioactive waste treatment products, e.g. precipitate formed during the treatment of LLAW (Low Level Active Waste) using iron compounds and their conditioned matrix obtained by cementation.

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85 178 183 Antal, T. (2013) Effects of different pre-treatments on drying characteristics and quality of freeze dried sour cherry. Food Science

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Abstract  

Radiation treatment with gamma-rays was used to improve the biodegradability of EDTA that is known to be a non-biodegradable substance. The effect of metal ions and catalysts on the treatment of EDTA was studied first. The removal of EDTA was definitely decreased in the presence of metal ions such as Cr(III), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) at doses greater than 3 kGy. The addition of a TiO2

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381 398 Makó, A. & Hernádi, H. , 2010. Comparative evaluation of different pre-treatment methods applied during the PSD analysis of soils. (In Hungarian) In

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Abstract  

The possibility of applying chemical treatment prior to evaporation was discussed in the present work. Using titanium hydroxide-cobalt ferrocyanide as coprecipitants allows fixation of high percentage of radioactive nuclides present (e.g. Cs 98%, Ru 90%, Sb 95%, Ce 98%, Am 95% and Pu 95%). Hence using such simple chemical separation before evaporation improves the process and leads to several advantages, e.g. raising the decontamination factor, reducing radioactive aerosol production and solving the problem of medium active waste treatment by adding the chemically precipitated solids to the high-active waste and the supernatant to the low-active waste, are examples for these advantages.

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Summary  

In order to evaluate the use of gamma-ray treatment as a pretreatment to conventional biological methods, the effects of gamma-irradiation on biodegradability (BOD5/COD) of textile and pulp wastewaters were investigated. For all wastewaters studied in this work, the efficiency of treatment based on TOC removal was insignificant even at an absorbed dose of 20 kGy. However, the change of biodegradability was noticeable and largely dependent on the chemical property of wastewaters and the absorbed dose of gamma-rays. For textile wastewaters, gamma-ray treatment increased the biodegradability of desizing effluent due to degradation of polymeric sizing agents such as polyvinyl alcohol. Interestingly, the weight-loss showed the highest value of 0.97 at a relatively low dose of 1 kGy. This may be caused by the degradation of less biodegradable ethylene glycol prior to terephthalic acid decomposition. For pulp wastewater, the gamma-ray treatment did not improve the biodegradability of cooking and bleaching of C/D effluents. However, the biodegradability of bleaching E1 and final effluents was abruptly increased up to 5 kGy then slowly decreased as the absorbed dose was increased. The initial increase of biodegradability may be induced by the decomposition of refractory organic compounds such as chlorophenols, which are known to be the main components of bleaching C/D and final effluents.

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Summary  

The differences on the thermal behaviour (DTG-DTA) of antigorite sample measured before and after sonication have been studied. Sonication treatment produces negligible changes in the structure of the material but substantial textural modifications. These modifications produce changes in the thermal behaviour of antigorite sample. Thus, it has been observed a decrease in the dehydroxylation temperature as measured by DTG and DTA effects. For sonication treatments longer than 20 h, two new effects of dehydroxylation are observed, the intensity of these two new effects increases with the sonication time showing a modification in the release of structural OH. It has been also observed that the formation of forsterite takes place simultaneously with the dehydroxylation of the antigorite. The high temperature exothermic effect is due to the recrystallization of forsterite and not to the formation of forsterite as traditionally assumed. Modifications in the thermal dehydroxylation of antigorite observed in this study are related to the pronounced decrease in particle size obtained by sonication.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Rafael de Pádua Ferreira, Solange Sakata, Fernando Dutra, Patricia Di Vitta, Maria Taddei, Maria Bellini, and Júlio Marumo

Abstract  

Waste management plays an important role in radioactive waste volume reduction as well as lowering disposal costs and minimizing the environment-detrimental impact. The employment of biomass in the removal of heavy metals and radioisotopes has a significant potential in liquid waste treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the radioactive waste treatment by using three different bacterial communities (BL, BS, and SS) isolated from impacted areas, removing radioisotopes and organic compounds. The best results were obtained in the BS and BL community, isolated from the soil and a lake of a uranium mine, respectively. BS community was able to remove 92% of the uranium and degraded 80% of tributyl phosphate and 70% of the ethyl acetate in 20 days of experiments. BL community removed 81% of the uranium and degraded nearly 60% of the TBP and 70% of the ethyl acetate. SS community collected from the sediment of São Sebastião channel removed 76% of the uranium and 80% of the TBP and 70% of the ethyl acetate. Both americium and cesium were removed by all communities. In addition, the BS community showed to be more resistant to radioactive liquid waste than the other communities. These results indicated that the BS community is the most viable for the treatment of large volumes of radioactive liquid organic waste.

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