and inadequate antibiotic development encouraged the re-use of old antibiotics [ 11–14 ]. Efflux pumps can be effective in cell signaling, metabolism, homeostasis and different roles such as bacterial virulence. There are five main efflux pumps in
Authors:J. Hacker, Gabrielle Blum-Oehler, Bianca Hochhut, and U. Dobrindt
Hacker, J., Blum-Oehler, G., Janke, B., Nagy, G., Goebel, W.: Pathogenicity islands of extraintestinal Escherichia coli . In: Kaper, J., Hacker, J. (eds): Pathogenicity islands and other mobile virulence
Mekalanos, J. J. 1996: Alterations in Vibrio cholerae motility phenotypes correlate with changes in virulence factor expression. Infect. Immun. 64 , 2246-2255.
Alterations in Vibrio cholerae motility phenotypes correlate with
Authors:Jing Xia, Xin-Yu Cheng, Xiao-Jun Wang, and Hong-Juan Peng
The clonal lineages have a number of different phenotypes, such as growth, migration, and transmigration [ 7 ]; however, the best characterized of these is their virulence in laboratory mice [ 8, 9 ]. Type I strains exhibit the acute lethal virulence
Authors:Orsolya Szabó, Dániel Gulyás, Nikolett Szabó, Katalin Kristóf, Béla Kocsis, and Dóra Szabó
-mediated quinolone resistances.
Detection of virulence determinants of E. coli
Tested virulence determinants of E. coli were the following: afimbrial adhesins ( afa ), S and F1C fimbiriae ( sfa/foc ), pili