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229 235 De Vita, P., Maggio, A. 2006. Yield stability in durum wheat: Progress over the last two decades in Italy. Cereal Res. Commun. 34 :1207

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termésstabilitására 1991 és 2000 között. (Effect of sowing time and N fertilisation on the yield and yield stability of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids between 1991-2000.) Növénytermelés , 50 , 309-331. A vetésidő és a N-műtrágyázás hatása a

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Farshadfar E. (2013): Simultaneous selection of yield and yield stability in chickpea genotypes using the GGE biplot technique. Acta Agron. Hung. , 61, 185–194. Farshadfar E

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Dhopate, A. M., Ramtake, S. D., Thote, S. G. 1992: Effect of soil moisture deficit on root growth and respiration, nodulation and yield stability of field grown peanut genotypes. Ann. Plant Physiol. , 6 , 188-197. Effect of soil

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The vast genetic resources of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, hereafter WB) may hold unique assets for improving barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivars for drought stress. To evaluate genetic potential and characterization of variation among a diverse collection of barley and WB genotypes, mostly originated from Iran, a field experiment was performed under three moisture environments (control, mild and intense drought stress) during two years (2012–2014). Considerable variation was observed among the wild and cultivated genotypes for drought tolerance and agronomic traits. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped genotypes studied into three groups (WB, two-row barley and sixrow barley groups). However, Iranian and foreign WB genotypes were not completely separated, showing a high variation within both gene pools. The high significance of genotype by environment interaction, confirms importance of using accurate target environments for drought stress breeding. A number of WB genotypes with the highest values of the number of tillers, number of seed per spike, seed weight, grain yield and yield stability index under stressed environments were identified as superior genotypes. Most of these genotypes originate from Iran, highlighting the importance of this germplasm in barley breeding.

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In the present study, efficiency of the artificial neural network (ANN) method to identify the best drought tolerance indices was investigated. For this purpose, 25 durum genotypes were evaluated under rainfed and supplemental irrigation environments during two consecutive cropping seasons (2011–2013). The results of combined analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that year, environment, genotype and their interaction effects were significant for grain yield. Mean grain yield of the genotypes ranged from 184.93 g plot–1 under rainfed environment to 659.32 g plot–1 under irrigated environment. Based on the ANN results, yield stability index (YSI), harmonic mean (HM) and stress susceptible index (SSI) were identified as the best indices to predict drought-tolerant genotypes. However, mean productivity (MP) followed by geometric mean productivity (GMP) and HM were found to be accurate indices for screening drought tolerant genotypes. In general, our results indicated that genotypes G9, G12, G21, G23 and G24 were identified as more desirable genotypes for cultivation in drought-prone environments. Importantly, these results could provide an evidence that ANN method can play an important role in the selection of drought tolerant genotypes and also could be useful in other biological contexts.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: B.L. Béres, N.Z. Lupwayi, F.J. Larney, B. Ellert, E.G. Smith, T.K. Turkington, D. Pageau, K. Semagn, and Z. Wang

Research indicates that not all crops respond similarly to cropping diversity and the response of triticale (× Triticosecale ssp.) has not been documented. We investigated the effects of rotational diversity on cereals in cropping sequences with canola (Brassica napus L.), field pea (Pisum sativum L.), or an intercrop (triticale:field pea). Six crop rotations were established consisting of two, 2-yr low diversity rotations (LDR) (continuous triticale (T-T_LDR) and triticale-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (T-W_LDR)); three, 2-yr moderate diversity rotations (MDR) (triticale-field pea (T-P_MDR), triticale-canola (T-C_MDR), and a triticale: field pea intercrop (T- in P_MDR)); and one, 3-yr high diversity rotation (HDR) (canola-triticale-field pea (C-T-P_HDR)). The study was established in Lethbridge, Alberta (irrigated and rainfed); Swift Current (rainfed) and Canora (rainfed), Saskatchewan, Canada; and carried out from 2008 to 2014. Triticale grain yield for the 3-yr HDR was superior over the LDR rotations and the MDR triticale-field pea system; however, results were similar for triticale-canola, and removal of canola from the system caused a yield drag in triticale. Triticale biomass was superior for the 3-yr HDR. Moreover, along with improved triticale grain yield, the 3-yr HDR provided greater yield stability across environments. High rotational diversity (C-T-P_HDR) resulted in the highest soil microbial community and soil carbon concentration, whereas continuous triticale provided the lowest. Net economic returns were also superior for C-T-P_HDR ($670 ha–1) and the lowest for T-W_LDR ($458 ha–1). Overall, triticale responded positively to increased rotational diversity and displayed greater stability with the inclusion of field pea, leading to improved profitability and sustainability of the system.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M. Oyekunle, A. Menkir, H. Mani, G. Olaoye, I.S. Usman, S.G. Ado, U.S. Abdullahi, H.O. Ahmed, L.B. Hassan, R.O. Abdulmalik, and H. Abubakar

.W . Nigeria. Nigerian J. Agron. 1 : 43 – 46 . Fan , X.M. , Kang , M.S. , Chen , H. , Zhang , Y. , Tan , J. , Xu , C. 2007 . Yield stability of maize hybrids evaluated

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. 2014 . Adaptation patterns and yield stability of durum wheat landraces to highland cold rainfed areas of Iran . Crop Sci. 54 : 944 – 954 . Pacheco , A. , Vargas , M. , Alvarado

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References Abakemal , D. , Shimelis , H. , Derera , J. 2016 . Genotype-by-environment interaction and yield stability of quality protein maize hybrids

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