Thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the concentrations of magnesium, aluminium, phosphorus, copper and manganese in two biological fluids: blood serum and market milk. Both epithermal neutron irradiation and radiochemical separation (a chromatographic column of HAP) were used to get rid of the interferences from 24-Na. Strongly acidic solutions of the irradiated samples were passed through the columns of HAP, where sodium was completely adsorbed while, Al, Cu, Mg and Mn were eluted with an efficiency of 99±1%. Since both Al and P were determined through the formation of28Al (2.24 min) thermal and epithermal neutron activation have been applied in order to determine the contribution of each radionuclide to28Al activity. The determination of Mg, Al and P in milk samples was done instrumentally, whereas in the case of blood serum with higher concentration of Na, a radiochemical separation is essential in both cases. The concentrations of Al, Cu, Mg, Mn and P in blood serum and market milk were found to be 0.24±0.02 and 1.85±0.09 g Al/ml, 1.35±0.04 and 0.068±0.005 g Cu/ml, 22.9±1 and 98.9±8.6 g Mg/ml, 22±3 and 16±2 ng Mn/ml and 167±13 and 865±32 g P/ml, respectively.
Authors:J. Morris, R. Ngwenyama, J. Guthrie, J. Brockman, V. Spate, and J. Robertson
Instrumental neutron activation analysis is routinely used at the MURR to quantify selenium in prospectively-collected biologic
markers including blood serum and toenails. These specimens are typically collected from well-defined cohort populations participating
in investigations assessing selenium intake and incidence of chronic disease endpoints. These epidemiological investigations,
whether observational (case-control) or clinical (intervention), typically generate thousands of samples. The purpose of this
paper is to assess, through evaluation of quality control results, if the achievable accuracy and precision in the measurement
of selenium using NAA is adequate to determine a relative risk of 1.2 at high confidence in epidemiological studies.
Concentration levels of eight trace elements in 120 samples of human blood serum were investigated by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for the purpose of medical research. The elements Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se, and Zn were simultaneously determined by the relative method in comparison with inorganic standards treated under identical conditions. The process of analysis and its reliability was checked using human serum and IAEA certified reference material. Statistical results are expressed in ppm or ppb. Both normal and, if necessary, log-normal frequency distributions of all elements determined are presented, types of distribution curves are verified statistically on 95% level of probability.
Authors:M. Saiki, N. M. Sumita, O. Jaluul, I. F. Sobreiro, W. Jacob Filho, and M. B. A. Vasconcellos
In this study a protocol for blood serum analysis was defined and the concentrations for Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn
were obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Blood samples were collected from healthy elderly volunteers who
were selected based on the SENIEUR protocol. Contamination of blood by the collection procedure was also evaluated and found
negligible. The serum was separated by centrifugation, then freeze-dried and analyzed. Most of results obtained were within
the acceptable value ranges used by physicians for normal population. The certified reference material, NIST SRM 1566b Oyster
Tissue was analyzed for quality control.
Authors:V. Papassotiriou, S. Georgala, J. Stratigos, N. Panayotakis, A. Hadjiantoniou, and A. Katsanos
Skin tissue samples from 41 patients suffering from skin epitheliomas were analyzed by the PIXE method. Skin samples from the non-affected areas and blood serum were also analyzed for the same patients. The elements determined were K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Pb. Their concentrations in the healthy skin and the serum were normal. The concentrations in the lesions were nearly the same for both basal cell and squamus cell epitheliomas (BCE and SCC) except for higher zinc and lower bromine values in the BCE samples. However, substantial differences were observed between the affected and non-affected skin.
Three methods of determination of one-dimensional distribution of14C-labelled compounds are compared: measurement with position-sensitive detector /LB 282/511/, liquid scintillation counting /LSC/, and autoradiography with densitometric quantification. For a mutual comparison of these methods samples of blood serum were used, in which the fractional esterification rate /FER/ was determined by means of LCAT Test. The agreement of the methods of FER determination on the basis of the measurement with LB 282/511 or LSC was checked. In the case of autoradiography a correction for non-linearity between the blackening and the number of -particles striking the area unit was necessary.
A simple radiochemical machine incorporating ion-exchange procedures has been described. The system has been tested repeatedly for the determination of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Mo at ultra trace concentration levels in a variety of biological samples such as reference materials, human blood serum, human milk, hair and certain dietary materials, thereby demonstrating its suitability for practical use. The procedure can also yield results for A, Au and W, without any further chemical manipulations. Results show <1, 0.12, 0.18, 983, 0.61 and 0.91 g/l for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Mo, respectively, in human blood serum. Corresponding concentrations in human milk are <1, 0.25, <1, 186 to 310, 4 to 40 and 5.8 g/l. Among the reference materials, IAEA milk standard A-11 shows 1.85, 5.1, 17, 380, 260 and 101 ng/g for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Mo, respectively. Corresponding concentrations in animal muscle H-4 are 4.1, 5, 10.2, 4000, 455 and 45 ng/g. Importantly, this scheme has been applied to process large number of samples from single investigations such as those arising from dietary studies, obtaining quick and reliable data for routine use.
Authors:R. Michel, F. Löer, M. Nolte, M. Reich, and J. Zilkens
In order to describe the impact of corrosion of medical implants on the trace element balance of man samples of blood, serum and of a variety of tissues and organs were analysed for their trace element composition using instrumental neutron activation techniques. By the analysis of blood and serum the trace element status after long-term implantation as well as its dependence on time after implantation was investigated. Using autopsy samples of human organs such as heart, spleen, liver, of aorta and of lymphatic tissue from the lower pelvis transport and storage of the corrosion products was studided. These investigations were supplemented by a comprehensive study of normal human blood, serum, tissues and organs from patients without implants. The results demonstrate that there are high enrichments of corrosion products in several tissues and organs and that also blood and serum reveal the presence of the metal implants in the trace element levels, increasing shortly after implantation and pertaining during the entire implantation time. Thus the corrosion of metallic implants is a process not only affecting tissues from the vicinity of the implants but also influencing the trace element balance of the entire organism.
In the present study a method using enriched stable isotope tracer and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was developed to study the dynamic distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in a variety of organs and tissues of Wistar rats. Stable isotopes 152Sm and 168Yb were selected as tracers for the experiment. Intravenously injected 152Sm and 168Yb in chloride form could be quickly absorbed and distributed in almost all the organs and tissues of interest, including liver, skeleton, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, testicle, and blood serum. Liver and skeleton had high ability to take up 152Sm and 168Yb under the experimental conditions, whereas the contents of the elements in other organs were generally lower than 2% of the given dose during the whole experimental period. The difference in distribution of 152Sm and 168Yb in the body was also discussed.
Authors:Márta Erdélyi, M. Mézes, and Györgyi Virág
Glutathione peroxidase enzyme superfamily plays significant role in the elimination of reactive oxygen free radicals in the animals. Many characteristics of these proteins have been revealed already, but their regulation is still not known. Several data suggest that some environmental factors have certain regulatory effect, while others propose strict genetic regulation.In this report we present four different environmental induction models in which New Zealand white rabbits were used as experimental animals. In three models, free radical load of different origin, lipidperoxide load, application of a glutathione depletor or a prooxidant agent, was introduced. Beside these negative models a positive model was also constructed in which additive selenium was supplied.Glutathione peroxidase activity was measured in blood serum, erythrocyte haemolysate and liver. Reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde concentration in the liver were also determined.According to the results, the established models are capable for analysing the enzyme activity´environmental interactions.