Authors:Kadri Siimer, Tiit Kaljuvee, Tõnis Pehk, and Ilmar Lasn
Thermal behaviour of industrial UF resins modified by low level of melamine was followed by TG-DTA technique on the labsysTM instrument Setaram together with the 13C NMR analysis of resin structure and testing boards in current production at Estonian particleboard factory Pärnu Plaaditehas
AS. DTA curve of UF resin which has been cocondensed during synthesis with even low level of melamine shows the shift of condensation
exotherm and water evaporation endotherm to considerable higher temperatures. The effect of melamine monomer introduced to
UF resin just before curing was compared. The effect of addition of urea as formaldehyde scavenger was studied.
The paper aims at showing how the musical thinking of Forest Nenets differs from those structural patterns that correspond to European music. Experiments and interviews with the informants were used for that purpose. The author's background for the perception of folk music comes from old Estonian runic tunes. When he analyzed Forest Nenets music by using this experience, he would come to the conclusions that would be considered wrong by the representatives of the Nenets culture. For the Nenets singer-composer it is rather important what he wants to say and not how he is going to shape it into a song.
This study analyzed 2443 papers published in 2006 by European Union authors on pain-related research. Five EU countries (the
UK, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and France) each published > 200 papers while three countries (Cyprus, Malta and Estonia)
published none; socio-economic indicators were related to each country’s productivity. The 2443 papers were published in 592
journals and Cephalalgia, Pain and European Journal of Pain were the most prolific. Publications were also analyzed for intra- versus inter-EU/non-EU collaborations and subdisciplines
profiles in Clinical Medicine and the Life Sciences for the World, USA, EU and the top-four EU countries were compared.
This paper aims to present the role of Germany in the global value chains (GVCs) of 10 Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) in 1995–2011. GVCs, being a result of the fragmentation of production processes, have changed the nature of economic globalisation. The study covers five Central European countries (CECs) (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia), the three Baltic States (Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia) as well as Bulgaria and Romania. Germany is chosen because it is the main trading partner of the majority of the CEECs. The illustration of the position of Germany in GVCs of the CEECs is based on trade statistics in value added terms. The research results show that Germany has become an engine of increasing integration of the CECs in the GVCs. The role of Germany as a supplier of inputs to the CECs’ exports (backward linkages) is larger than its role as an exporter of value added originating from the CECs (forward linkages).
Authors:T. Kaljuvee, I. Rudjak, E. Edro, and A. Trikkel
The effect of heating rate on the thermal behavior of ammonium nitrate (AN) and on the kinetic parameters of decomposition
of AN and its blends with limestone and dolomite was studied on the basis of commercial fertilizer-grade AN and several Estonian
limestone and dolomite samples. Experiments were carried out under dynamic heating conditions up to 900 °C at heating rates
of 2, 5, 10 and 20 °C min−1 in a stream of dry air using Setaram Labsys 2000 equipment. For calculation of kinetic parameters, the TG data were processed
by differential isoconversional method of Friedman. The variation of the value of activation energy E along the reaction progress α showed a complex character of decomposition of AN—interaction of AN with limestone and dolomite
additives with the formation of nitrates as well as decomposition of these nitrates at higher temperatures.
Authors:U. Moor, K. Karp, P. Põldma, and M. Starast
The research was conducted with the apple (
) cultivars Krameri Tuviõun and Talvenauding at the Estonian Agricultural University during 2003–2005. The aim was to study the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment (1 ppm, at room temperature, 24 h) on the biochemical content and physiological disorders of apples and on external quality after 4 months of storage. The apples were stored in a normal atmosphere at 2–5°C and 80–85% RH. In the first storage season 1-MCP treatment did not improve apple quality in general; only the peel background colour of treated apples remained greener. In the second storage season 1-MCP treatment influenced the biochemical content of the apples and improved apple quality: treated fruits were firmer (increase from 4.7 kg/cm
to 8.1 kg/cm
) and contained more vitamin C; also, the SSC decreased and the loss of titratable acids was delayed. Consequently fruit spoilage decreased by 30%.
Authors:K. Siimer, P. Christjanson, T. Kaljuvee, T. Pehk, I. Lasn, and I. Saks
The thermal behaviour of MUF resins from different suppliers with different content of melamine was studied, along with the
13C NMR spectroscopic analysis of resin structure and the testing of particleboards in current production at Estonian PB factory
Pärnu Plaaditehas AS. The chemical structure of resins from DMSO-d6 solutions was analysed by 13C NMR spectroscopy on a Bruker AMX500 NMR spectrometer. The melamine level in different MUF resins is compared by the ratios
of carbonyl carbon of urea and triazine carbon of melamine in 13C NMR spectra. Curing behaviour of MUF resins was studied by stimultaneous TG-DTA techniques on the Labsys™ instrument Setaram.
The shape of DTA curves characterisises the resin synthesis procedure by the extent of polymerisation of UF and MF components
and is in accordance with structural data.
Despite significant policy efforts, in 2003 the Hungarian general population has fallen behind the Central and Eastern European (CEE) average regarding most social indicators of Internet access, usage, knowledge and attitudes. The article is a policy impact assessment interpreting the results of a population survey covering 10 countries of CEE, performed in 2003 within the framework of the SIBIS Project (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society). The 10 Newly Associated States (NAS) covered by the survey are as follows: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. In case of Hungary the relevant strategies, legal framework development and support actions of various public policy areas are analysed with the help of an international comparative analysis of survey findings.
Authors:A G Aronov, R R Seroglazov, T I Aronova, and O N Safronov
The paper deals with the earthquakes that took place in the Kaliningrad region (Russia) on 21 September 2004 and were felt in the territories of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus and Finland. Data on space and time co-ordinates and dynamic parameters of these earthquake foci available from international centers and various seismological groups are analyzed. A degree of reliability of the results obtained is discussed. The epicentral zone of the Kaliningrad earthquakes is found within the western part of the old East European Platform (EEP). The seismotectonic map presenting the territories of Belarus and the Baltic States was considered, and the Kaliningrad-Lithuanian potential seismogenic area was analyzed. Methods used to outline possible earthquake zones when seismic zoning of the Belarusian-Baltic region was carried out were verified in practice and, actually, made possible a long-term forecast of earthquake origination in Kaliningrad.