The combined thermogravimetric (TG) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used for studying the gaseous compounds
evolved at thermooxidation of oil shale samples from different deposits (Estonia, Jordan, Israel). In addition to H2O and CO2as the major species, the formation and emission of CO, SO2, HCl and a number of organic species as methane, ethane, ethylene, methanol, formic acid, formaldehyde, chlorobenzene, etc.
was determined. Differences in the absorbance of respective bands in FTIR spectra depending on the origin of oil shale and
on the heating rate used were established.
The La Fontaine Literature Society was founded in 1920 in Budapest. Its task was to promote the world literature in Hungary and to make Hungarian literature better known abroad.
One of the founders was Béla Vikár, who also translated the Fables of Jean La Fontaine into Hungarian. In my paper I investigate his correspondence between 1920 and 30 and the deed of foundation of the La Fontaine Society. My aim is to describe the place and the role of Finnish and Estonian literatures in the Society's work.
Authors:Kadri Siimer, Tiit Kaljuvee, Tõnis Pehk, and Ilmar Lasn
Thermal behaviour of industrial UF resins modified by low level of melamine was followed by TG-DTA technique on the labsysTM instrument Setaram together with the 13C NMR analysis of resin structure and testing boards in current production at Estonian particleboard factory Pärnu Plaaditehas
AS. DTA curve of UF resin which has been cocondensed during synthesis with even low level of melamine shows the shift of condensation
exotherm and water evaporation endotherm to considerable higher temperatures. The effect of melamine monomer introduced to
UF resin just before curing was compared. The effect of addition of urea as formaldehyde scavenger was studied.
Authors:T. Kaljuvee, I. Rudjak, E. Edro, and A. Trikkel
The effect of heating rate on the thermal behavior of ammonium nitrate (AN) and on the kinetic parameters of decomposition
of AN and its blends with limestone and dolomite was studied on the basis of commercial fertilizer-grade AN and several Estonian
limestone and dolomite samples. Experiments were carried out under dynamic heating conditions up to 900 °C at heating rates
of 2, 5, 10 and 20 °C min−1 in a stream of dry air using Setaram Labsys 2000 equipment. For calculation of kinetic parameters, the TG data were processed
by differential isoconversional method of Friedman. The variation of the value of activation energy E along the reaction progress α showed a complex character of decomposition of AN—interaction of AN with limestone and dolomite
additives with the formation of nitrates as well as decomposition of these nitrates at higher temperatures.
The study of folk traditions may serve the development of ethnic and national identity. The history of such researches among the Finno-Ugric peoples in Russia proves that statement. The paper portrays the Finnish, Hungarian and Russian research history from the 18th century until today. The language, folklore and ethnography of Finno-Ugric peoples contributed much to the national identity of those peoples. Institutions in Finland, Hungary and Estonia served the same purpose. The attitude of the Russian state was impressive and it has changed several times. The role of the Pravoslav Church and its Kazan Priest’ Seminary deserves special attention. The paper is of summarizing character and in the bibliography only the most important publications are listed.
Despite significant policy efforts, in 2003 the Hungarian general population has fallen behind the Central and Eastern European (CEE) average regarding most social indicators of Internet access, usage, knowledge and attitudes. The article is a policy impact assessment interpreting the results of a population survey covering 10 countries of CEE, performed in 2003 within the framework of the SIBIS Project (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society). The 10 Newly Associated States (NAS) covered by the survey are as follows: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. In case of Hungary the relevant strategies, legal framework development and support actions of various public policy areas are analysed with the help of an international comparative analysis of survey findings.
Authors:U. Moor, K. Karp, P. Põldma, and M. Starast
The research was conducted with the apple (
) cultivars Krameri Tuviõun and Talvenauding at the Estonian Agricultural University during 2003–2005. The aim was to study the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment (1 ppm, at room temperature, 24 h) on the biochemical content and physiological disorders of apples and on external quality after 4 months of storage. The apples were stored in a normal atmosphere at 2–5°C and 80–85% RH. In the first storage season 1-MCP treatment did not improve apple quality in general; only the peel background colour of treated apples remained greener. In the second storage season 1-MCP treatment influenced the biochemical content of the apples and improved apple quality: treated fruits were firmer (increase from 4.7 kg/cm
to 8.1 kg/cm
) and contained more vitamin C; also, the SSC decreased and the loss of titratable acids was delayed. Consequently fruit spoilage decreased by 30%.
This paper aims to present the role of Germany in the global value chains (GVCs) of 10 Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) in 1995–2011. GVCs, being a result of the fragmentation of production processes, have changed the nature of economic globalisation. The study covers five Central European countries (CECs) (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia), the three Baltic States (Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia) as well as Bulgaria and Romania. Germany is chosen because it is the main trading partner of the majority of the CEECs. The illustration of the position of Germany in GVCs of the CEECs is based on trade statistics in value added terms. The research results show that Germany has become an engine of increasing integration of the CECs in the GVCs. The role of Germany as a supplier of inputs to the CECs’ exports (backward linkages) is larger than its role as an exporter of value added originating from the CECs (forward linkages).
Authors:K. Siimer, P. Christjanson, T. Kaljuvee, T. Pehk, I. Lasn, and I. Saks
The thermal behaviour of MUF resins from different suppliers with different content of melamine was studied, along with the
13C NMR spectroscopic analysis of resin structure and the testing of particleboards in current production at Estonian PB factory
Pärnu Plaaditehas AS. The chemical structure of resins from DMSO-d6 solutions was analysed by 13C NMR spectroscopy on a Bruker AMX500 NMR spectrometer. The melamine level in different MUF resins is compared by the ratios
of carbonyl carbon of urea and triazine carbon of melamine in 13C NMR spectra. Curing behaviour of MUF resins was studied by stimultaneous TG-DTA techniques on the Labsys™ instrument Setaram.
The shape of DTA curves characterisises the resin synthesis procedure by the extent of polymerisation of UF and MF components
and is in accordance with structural data.